exam 3

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When looking at the word red printed in green ink, it is difficult to name the color of the ink. This is called

the Stroop effect.

A human that sleeps 17-18 hours per day is likely

a newborn

A change in bodily function that occurs over a 24-hour period is a(n)

circadian rhythm.

If you were to live in a cave without any time cues, how long would your average sleep/waking day probably be in hours?

25

Deprivation of sleep is used to

examine why we sleep.

The alpha brain-wave pattern is associated with

relaxed wakefulness.

REM sleep is distinguished from N-REM sleep in that

the eyes move during REM sleep.

Insomnia refers to

difficulty in sleeping enough

Narcolepsy refers to

sudden and uncontrollable onset of sleep.

Apnea is a sleep disorder involving

breathing difficulties during sleep.

Somnambulism is a sleep disorder that involves

walking while asleep.

Selective attention refers to the situation in which

you attempt to track one message and ignore another

In order for us to deal with unconscious wishes in our dreams without being threatened, Freud argued that our dreams contain

symbols of our impulses.

How do we know that the content of dreams can be influenced by motivations?

Thirsty people dream about drinking fluids.

____ are anxiety-arousing dreams that may lead to a person waking up, sometimes seemingly in order to avoid the threat that emerged in the dream.

nightmares

Which of the following is typically observed during a hypnotic episode?

A hypnotized person may experience an alteration of perception

Which of the following is true of the simulating paradigm?

It is used to determine whether hypnosis is genuine.

Hypnosis can be considered to be an altered state of consciousness because it

may result in an alteration of perception.

Susceptibility to hypnosis

varies from some people who are readily hypnotized to those who appear invulnerable to hypnosis.

The type of meditation which involves focusing your attention on an object is ____ meditation.

concentrative

Drugs that alter behavior, mood, and consciousness are termed

psychoactive.

Prolonged use of narcotics seems to

lead to lower production of particular endorphins

The function of keeping track of our relation with the environment is referred to as

monitoring.

The difficulty with naloxone as a treatment for acute narcotic toxicity is that

the effects of naloxone are short-lived.

Sensorimotor functioning is very impaired when blood alcohol level reaches a threshold dose of

0.1%

Chronic drinking can lead to

Korsakoff's syndrome

The major effect of tranquilizers is to

reduce anxiety.

Amphetamines

increase synaptic levels of brain dopamine and norepinephrine

Hallucinatory drugs likely act by

interfering with brain serotonin activity.

You are taking a test on psychology when you suddenly think of your grandmother. The image of your grandmother was stored at the

preconscious level

The struggle to remember a name that we can almost retrieve is called

the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

Last year Jack fell off his roof and landed on the back of his head. Now he is blind. He was walking past some students playing catch when one of them threw him the ball. He caught it. This is an example of

blindsight.

Knowledge at the level of the ____ is most difficult to access.

subconscious

An altered state of consciousness involves

a change in the quality of awareness.

Evolutionary theory suggests that we sleep because

people who slept at night were less likely to be killed by nighttime predators.

The study of how people think, acquire knowledge, imagine, plan, and solve problems is called ____ psychology.

cognitive

Psychologists say that people go through four phases in solving a problem. Which of the following is one of the four phases?

generating one or more hypotheses

A mechanical, repetitive mathematical procedure for solving a problem is known as a/an

algorithm.

High creativity seems to be

tied to knowing a lot about a particular topic.

The tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category itself, is known as the

representativeness heuristic.

You are quite sure that it rains every time you wash your car. In fact, this is probably not true, but it is most related to which heuristic?

availability

The tendency to look for evidence supporting one particular hypothesis and not considering other possibilities is known as the

confirmation bias.

The willingness to do something we wouldn't otherwise choose to do because of money or effort already spent is termed the

sunk cost effect

Transformational grammar is a

system for converting a deep structure into a surface structure

Edgar suffers a stroke on the left side of his brain and as a result has a condition characterized by inarticulate speech and difficulties using and understanding grammatical devices. This condition is known as ____ aphasia.

Broca's

The rate of progression through the stages of language ability

is approximately the same in all languages and all cultures

Which of the following would probably be the best prototype of "bird"?

robin

In those rare cases where children are not exposed to language (for example, separated from adults and growing up in a forest), they

have not developed a language of their own and learn very little language when exposed to it.

Our best evidence for the importance of early development in human language learning is the fact that

if deaf children are not exposed to some sort of sign language by age 12, they will never learn it well.

Studies of the brain areas for language in bilingual speakers indicate

that bilingual language capacity is neither more nor less lateralized than single language.

Under which of the following conditions, if any, could you move your eyes steadily, without jerky movements?

when following a moving object

According to the conceptual network approach, which of the following questions should most people be able to answer most rapidly?

Are canaries yellow?

According to the spreading activation theory, which of the following would someone be most likely to think of after hearing the word "rose"?

red

In general, our attention is drawn to

whatever is unusual given the current context.

Which of the following is an example of the attentive process?

Finding Waldo in a Where's Waldo book

"Change blindness" refers to the phenomenon that

people looking at a scene often fail to notice something that changes

During the moment after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to accurately perceive a second stimulus. This is called the

attentional blink.

The gradual development of expertise in a given field requires an increase in

crystallized intelligence.

The psychometric approach to intelligence proposes that:

intelligence is a mental capacity that can be measured by analyzing performance on mental tests

The degree to which a test samples broadly across the domain of interest refers to the test's:

content validity

Standardized tests are tests that:

have testing, scoring and interpretation procedures that do not vary across different administrations of the test

Binet's original IQ test was designed to:

identify children who would do poorly in traditional schools

Based on the intelligence quotient formula developed by Lewis Terman, an individual with a mental age greater than his or her chronological age would have:

an IQ greater than 100

Dorinda tells you that her 12-year-old cousin recently completed an intelligence test that translated raw scores into deviation IQ scores. Dorinda knows that her cousin's deviation IQ score was 75, but she is not sure what this means. You should tell her that her cousin:

scored below the mean for 12-year-olds

The idea of emotional intelligence is most similar to:

Gardner's interpersonal intelligence

Tacit knowledge consists of:

unspoken rules and strategies that are rarely, if ever, taught formally

The fact that the correlation in IQ scores between monozygotic twins reared apart is lower than that between monozygotic twins reared together suggests:

environmental factors can have an influence on intellectual development

tudies comparing IQ scores of various ethnic groups have found that the mean score:

for European Americans tends to be 10-15 points higher than the mean score for African Americans

According to Raymond Cattell, fluid intelligence refers to:

the ability to solve problems, reason, and remember

Results of research with African American children adopted into white homes best supports the idea that racial difference in IQ test scores:

are significantly influenced by environmental conditions

The term used to refer to the genetically determined bounds on intellectual ability is

reaction range

Reed and Jensen designed a study to measure the speed of neural processing. They had participants sit in a darkened room and watch a video monitor. At random intervals, a checkerboard pattern would appear on the monitor, and Reed and Jensen measured the latency of P100 waves generated by the brain in response to the presentation of the pattern. The results from this study:

showed there is a correlation between P100 latency and intelligence score

Howard Gardner has suggested that:

traditional conceptions of intelligence need to be broadened to include special abilities or talents

Karina is a prima ballerina with the New York ballet company. According to Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, Karina is likely to score high in:

bodily-kinesthetic intelligence

The triarchic theory of intelligence suggests that:

any complete conceptualization of intelligence must address behavior that occurs outside laboratory settings

According to Robert Sternberg, intelligence can be divided into three major parts. These three components of intelligence are:

analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence

Achievement tests are designed to measure a person's:

current level of knowledge or competence in a particular subject

Reliable tests:

produce similar scores from one administration to the next

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