The 3 agonists of the parietal cell?
Acetylcholine, gastrin, and histamine
Secretin stimulates the secretion of?
pancreatic juice and bile
Secretin inhibits what?
the action of gastrin on parietal cells
What action does CCK have on the pancreas?
secretion of enzymes
What action does CCK have on the gall bladder?
release of bile
What action does CCK have on the stomach?
Which of the hormones of the GI tract stimulate the secretion of insulin?
Which paracrine agent has an inhibitory effect throughout the GI tract?
Pacemaker cells for GI smooth muscle are called?
cells of Cajal
3 ways to trigger secretion of gastrin?
food in the stomach, peptides, and vagal stimulation
When present, gastrin causes the release of what?
The contraction during peristalsis is caused by the activation of neurons by the local plexus that release what?
Substance P and ACh
The relaxation during peristalsis is caused by the activation of neurons that release what?
NO, VIP, and ATP
Bile contains what?
bile salts, bile pigments, and bile acids
Starch digestion begins in the mouth when the salivary glands release what?
Protein foods are largely acted on in the stomach by what?
For the stomach protein-digesting enzyme to become active, what is needed?
The small intestine is protected by the action of hydrochloric acid in chyme by ______ which is ducted in by the pancreas.
bicarbonate rich fluid
This hormone stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice.
This hormone stimulates the pancreas to release enzyme-rich juice.
This hormone stimulates increased production of gastric juice.
This hormone causes the gallbladder to release stored bile.
This hormone causes the liver to increase its output of bile.
CCK and Secretin
Which type of cells secrete histamine?
Which type of cells secrete pepsinogen?
Which type of cells secrete mucous?
Which type of cells secrete intrinsic factor for vitamin B12 absorption?
Which type of cells secrete HCl?
Which type of cells secrete the hormone gastrin?
It is stimulated by the presence of acid in the small intestine and stimulates bicarbonate release from the pancreas and bile ducts.
It is stimulated by glucose and fat in the small intestine and increases insulin and amplifies the insulin responses to glucose.
It is inhibited by acid in the stomach and stimulates acid secretion from the stomach.
It is stimulated by amino acids and fatty acids in the small intestine and stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion.
What does omeprazole do?
inhibits H+ K+ ATPase
Secretory fluxes of fluid are largely driven by the active transport of _______ ions into the lumen.