Father of taxonomy
Wanted to construct a natural classification that would reveal the order of the universe
Famous for his facial angles
Studied skulls of many different monkeys, apes and humans, measuring the specific angle from the base of the nose to the top of the head "Facial Line"
His studies of the human cranium led to the classifications of the Dolicephalic and brachiocephalic. Credited for defining the CEPHALIC INDEX
Described 5 races:
1. American Indian
*used skin color, hair form and skull shape
*Also used the term "degeneration" as in "De Generis Humani" to mean away from origin
Samual George Morton
*Collected a huge number of skulls
*Worked with Blumenbach's 5 race concept
*Found shape and cranial capacity differences, especially in geographic populations
*Thought shape differences corresponded to intelligence
*It was later shown that the differences were statistically insignificant
Franz Joseph Gall
*Treated phrenology as a testable hypothesis
*Launched phrenology science - "Anatomy as Destiny"
*He rejected the idea that all humans were created equal, with equal potential. And that the mind of each human being at birth is a blank slate (Tabula Rosa)
*Popularized phrenology and was later critisized by GALL for not being scientific enough and throwing himself into ideal metaphysical
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
*Four rules of inheritance
1. Use and disuse, individuals lose characteristics
they do not use, and develop ones that are useful
2. Inheritance of acquired traits, individuals inherit the traits of their ancestors
Wrote origins of the species
"The most weighty of all arguments against treating the races of man as distinct species is that they graduate into each other"
Independently and simultaneously came up with the idea of evolution from a common ancestor, though he stressed environmental pressures more than Darwin who emphasized competition
Evidence of man's place in nature "The modifications of the colour of the skin in different races are well known. We speak of white or black people, but in reality they are all shades of brown"
*Most famous for his work on the ice-ages
"Whilst the lower animals are a distinct species...man, not withstanding the diversity of his races, constitutes only one, and the same all over the globe"
Invited to lecture in the US in 1846
Advocates polygenism and "separate and unequal"
Renown physician and researcher
*Wrote "Types of Mankind" very successful
A polygenist, bigot and racist
Nathanial Southgate Shaler
Harvard professor, paleontologist and geologist
*Wrote about the scientific implications of the theory of evolution
Cultural Relativism - Cultures are unique products of their history not a product of race
*Coined the word eugenics
*Wrote "inquiries into the human faculty and its development"
*Founded the Eugenics movement
*Progenitor of "nature vs. nurture" debate
Was one of Galtons disciples and used the title "Eugenics and Religion" for one of his speeches
*Set up the Eugenic record office in the U.S
*Argued that American Indians migrated across the Beijing Strait, from Asia
*Supported by detailed studies of skeletal remains
*Used shovel-shaped incisors in his studies - which are common in East Asians and very prominent among American Indians
*Used comparative anatomy to divide humans up into races
*Wrote the book "up from apes"
Credited for having studied fruit flies in population cages
*Discovering that close regional varieties of flies were more similar o each other genetically than flies from other regions
Produced a series of works questioning the validity of race as a biological concept, and opposed the work of Carleton Coon
Studied genetic variation in modern populations, known for his groundbreaking work in sickle cell anemia
"There are no races only clines"
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza
*studied connections between migrational patterns and blood groups
*Pioneered statistical methods of estimating evolutionary trees
Pierre Paul Broca
*Was convinced that the measured shape of the skull was the best indicator of quality of the brain