The title used by Russian rulers. It means "Caesar".
Ivan IV (Terrible)-
Russian ruler from 1533- 1583. His early years were marked by expansion and reform, but his later years were marked by terror and repression.
Name given to Russian nobles. They were very conservative and had to be forced to westernze.
Dynasty that ruled Russia from 1613- 1917.
Peter the Great
Russian monarch from 1696- 1725. He was the first true absolute monarch of Russia. He forced Russia to westernize in a series of (sometimes harsh) reforms in order to make Russia a major power in Europe.
The process of changing one's region or country using Western Europe (and, today, the US) as a model.
Capitol city of Russia built by Peter the Great. It was on the coast of the Baltic Sea and considered Russia's window to the West and is a symbol of Peter's desire to westernize.
Present capitol city of Russia and the capitol before Peter moved the capitol to St. Petersburg.