Industrial Revolution First Phase
1750-1850, forged from iron, powered by steam, and driven by textiles.
1st Agricultural Revolution
The start of farming and animal domsetication, roughly 12,000 years ago.
2nd Agricultural Revolution
One of the many origins of the Industrial Revolution, with many improved methods of farming. These methods included crop rotation and the seed drill.
Inventor of the seed drill.
Inventor of crop rotation method.
Factors Of Production
Anything that affects the production of a certain good. They include land and natural resources (how abundant are the raw materials), labor (how much manpower, animal power, or machine power do you have to produce the good), and money (how much money do you have to pay the workers or get better machines to produce the good faster and more efficiently).
First product of the Industrial Revolution to be mechanized in order to be made, resulting in many inventions such as the Spinning Jenny and a decrease in the price of cloth.
Established the first factory in the US in 1790, located in Rhode Island.
Inventor of the cotton gin and the first to implement the idea of interchangeable parts.
Inventor of the modern steam engine.
Perfector of the modern steam engine and implementor of the process named after him, in which cold air is blown over metal to burn off impurities. In this way, this man inadvertently invented stainless steel.
Inventor of the steamboat, first publicly put to use in 1807 in Clermont, Florida.
Inventor of the locomotive.
Inventor of Morse code and the telegraph, the first message on which was, "what hath God wrought?", sent in 1844. By 1866, long-distance communication was possible via telegraph and a trans-Atlantic telegraph line.
A system of working in which the workers are concentrated in the home. The workers were skilled, often learning family trades. They could work at their own pace and received money for the number of items they completed.
This was really the only other option of work at the time of the Industrial Revolution besides the domestic system, or working from home. It was very unsafe to work with this system, as no insurance was provided. Pay was low, and conditions were horrible. Workers were often treated with cruelty by their superiors, and the superiors could get away with whatever cruel act they instigated upon the workers. Even children were forced to work, and however cruel things got, the workers could not protest or strike.
At the time of the Industrial Revolution, these were the bankers, lawyers, professors, etc. They had average income and average places in society.
To identically and quickly produce the same good multiple times. Its three components are division of labor, assembly line, and interchangeable parts.
Division Of Labor
To assign workers to a different repetitive task.
A manufacturing process in which each worker does one specialized task in the construction of the final product, first implemented by Henry Ford.
Known as the father of mass production, he was the first to use the assembly line to produce his cars, thus dropping the price but still maintaining quality and rate of production.
Total control of production or sale of a group or service.
Combination of several corporations that control an entire industry.
A physiocrat in the 1770s who is most famous for first coining the idea of capitalism, a revolutionary form of economics as opposed to mercantilism. In 1776, he wrote The Wealth Of Nations, in which he explained his views further. His views on capitalism included "laissez-faire" economy in which the government did not interfere and the ideas of supply, demand, and competition.
A theorist during the time of the Industrial Revolution who reasoned that as food increased at a constant mathematical rate, the population increases at a geometric rate. There would also be the problem of overpopulation despite the wars, famines, and disease outbreaks that occur. The aftermath of each of the disasters would mean that there would be enough food to feed everyone, but not for long, since population would increase again.
He is most famous for reasoning the "Iron Law Of Wages", which states that as the population grows, wages would still be low, resulting in high unemployment. He would also refer to economics as "the dismal science". Along with Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus, he was a big believer in free enterprise and laissez-faire economy.
A utilitarianist who reasoned that actions should be judged by their utility and result in the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people possible.
John Stuart Mill
A liberal utilitarianist at the time of the Industrial Revolution who supported Capitalism. However, his ideal version says that the government must only intervene if people's civil liberties are in danger. He is very famous for the quote, "All human beings have an equal need of voice."
Sir Thomas More
The first person to come up with the concept of socialism. In his 1516 work Utopia, he talked about in an ideal society, people would cease to act selfishly.
Henri de Saint Simon
A socialist who reasoned that in the future, technology will solve all material problems. Also, he reasoned that if upper classmen die, it's not a real big deal, but if the working classmen die, it's a huge loss. The working class keeps society going.
The most influential socialist of the Industrial Revolution. He was most famous for pushing work reforms and establishing a Utopian ideal village in New Lanark, Scotland.
A social philosopher who is very famous as being the "father" of modern communism and socialism. He wrote The Communist Manifesto with Freidrich Engels in 1848. One of his more famous theories is where he explains the social conflict that keeps society going. According to him, Communism has two purposes: to explain "reality" and to prepare workers for the tasks ahead.
A theorist who is famous for finding the modern ideas of modern communism and socialism with Karl Marx, with whom he wrote The Communist Manifesto in 1848. As classes struggle, he reasoned, the final stage of that struggle is pure communism, which is inevitable.
A theory of social organization or government in which everything economic and social is controlled by an absolute, totalitarian state, which itself is dominated by a single, all-powerful, political party. According to Marx, communist society should be organized "from each according to his abilities to each according to his needs".