British economist Thomas Malthus argued that...?
a. population pressure would always force wages down to subsistence levels.
b. using young children in factories was immoral.
c. population always grew faster than the food supply.
d. the standard of living was a reflection of industrial capacity.
e. Methodism was a key factor in keeping the working class from revolting.
How did labor in British families change in the eighteenth century?
a. Family members increasingly adopted new convenient machines that reduced the time needed in household labor significantly.
b. Husbands became more involved in managing the household because of the greater cash flow running through the house.
c. Wives increasingly abandoned labor outside of the house to focus on child rearing.
d. Family members shifted labor away from unpaid work for household consumption and toward work for wages.
e. Family members increasingly scattered to diverse places of employment, rarely working together.
How did cotton transform the textile industry?
a. Cotton provided a more secure source of raw material for textiles than wool or flax, since it was less susceptible to yearly changes in weather or environment.
b. Cotton was far less expensive than wool or flax, permitting a significant decrease in the cost of new textiles.
c. Cotton could be spun mechanically with much greater efficiency than wool or flax, helping to solve the shortage of thread for textile production.
d. Cotton could be produced in far greater quantity than flax or wool because it could be grown in many of the British colonies.
e. Cotton was a more durable material than wool or flax, permitting it to be used in a greater variety of clothing.
How did the expansion in cotton clothing affect Western dress?
a. Most people began to wear underwear.
b. Elaborate styles were abandoned for simple, unadorned styles.
c. Greater color was added to clothing, since cotton holds dyes effectively.
d. Fewer layers of clothes were worn, since cotton breathes in response to body temperature.
e. Supporting material such as whalebone could be removed from clothing, since cotton is a coarse, stiff fabric.
The tendency to hire family units in the early factories was
a. originally a government-sponsored response to urbanization.
b. usually a response to the wishes of the families.
c. replaced by the system of pauper apprenticeship.
d. outlawed by the Combination Acts.
e. highly inefficient.
Why did the eighteenth-century Britain have a shortage of wood?
a. Wood had been over-harvested: it was the primary source of hear in all homes and a basic raw material in industry.
b. The new industrial pollution began to destroy traditional old-growth forests.
c. The vast expansion of the British navy in the wars against France led to a problem of deforestation.
d. New beetles and diseases from the Americas affected and began to destroy British forests.
e. The widespread building of canals and roads required large amounts of wood and had caused many forests to be cut down.
f. Maryellen Tully used it all for a giant bonfire
To move from the laboratory into manufacturing, James Watt's steam engine needed all of the following except
a. skilled workers.
b. precision parts.
c. a single, distinct industrial use.
d. a large base of capital.
e. skills of salesmanship.
How did railroads affect the nature of production?
a. The speed of rail travel required manufacturers to adopt more regularized work routines.
b. Railroads permitted factories to be established anywhere, without concern for access to other resources.
c. The availability of raw materials became more secure, supporting greater investment in machinery.
d. Markets become broader, encouraging manufacturers to create larger factories with more sophisticated machines.
e. Railroads allowed labor to move quickly to fill labor needs in new industries.
As major railroad construction came to a close in Britain, what happened to the workers who built those lines?
a. They returned to villages and the rural countryside to work on farms.
b. They drifted to towns and cities in search of employment and became urban laborers.
c. They followed railway companies to British colonies to continue to work building railroad lines.
d. They took positions as conductors, brakemen, and crossing guards for railway companies.
e. They formed roving bands who terrorized local populations and robbed railway trains.
Which one of the following best characterizes the British economy between 1780 and 1851?
a. Much of the growth of the gross national product was eaten up by population growth.
b. The large increase in wages resulted in a vast increase in personal consumption.
c. Average consumption per person decreased as industrial work drove down wages.
d. The large growth in population caused the gross national product to remain stagnant.
e. The expansion of the gross national product was only possible as average consumption diminished.
The difficulties faced by the continental economies in their efforst to compete with the British included all of the following except
a. the low prices of British mass-produced goods.
b. the complexity and expense of the new technology.
c. the resistance of landowning elites.
d. the scarcity of human capital.
e. the devastation left by the Napoleonic Wars.
Which of the following best explains David Ricardo's Iron Law of Wages?
a. Wages always move in proportion to productivity in the workplace.
b. The pressure of population growth would always sink wages to subsistence levels.
c. Wages of the working class always rise as a percentage of the wages of the upper classes ensuring that prosperity also produces greater wage inequality.
d. Population growth is inversely related to wages because greater population creates more highly talented people who produce greater profits.
e. Wages are a product of profit produced and not of hours worked.
The major breakthrough in energy and power supplies that catalyzed the Industrial Revolution was
a. Thomas Newcomen's 1705 steam engine.
b. the development of the internal combustion engine.
c. the use of running water to power cotton-spinning machinery.
d. James Watt's steam engine, developed and marketed between the 1760's and the 1780's.
e. Sir Isaac Newton's discovery of the law of action and reaction.
All of the following correctly characterize industrial growth patterns in Europ except...?
a. Belgium led continental Europe in adopting British technology for production
b. following the Napoleonic wars, France experienced a boom in factory production as the economy shifted from wartime to peacetime production
c. Germany began a spectacular rise is industrialization after 1860
d. the US began a spectacular rise is industrialization after 1860
e. eastern and southern Europe were the slowest regions to industrialize, with the process occurring after 2880
In Germany, Fritz Harkort...?
a. sought to demonstrate that widespread economic growth could be achieved through agricultural development without having to develop industry
b. sought to forge a new path to industrialization by using the state as the central engine of industrial growth
c. sought to develop a private academy that would train engineers for industrial production
d. sought to match English achievements in machine production as quickly as possible, even at great, unprofitable expense.
e. led a revolt by artisan craftsman against the instruction of machine technology
Friedrich List believed that industrial development should be pursued
a. as a part of a project of economic nationalism led by the state
b. only in those regions of the nation where natural resources were easily available
c. through the laissez-faire tradition of free trade and independence from government interference
d. as a supplement to agricultural development but never as a goal in itself
e. in colonies, so that the homeland would not be scarred by industrial pollution
How did class-consciousness form during the Industrial Revolution?
a. it formed because industrial workers were forced into ever larger factories that provided the opportunity for them to recognize their common plight
b. it formed because the forward the forward thinking radicals educated the laboring classes into Marxist doctrine
c. it formed because many individuals came to believe that classes existed and developed a sense of class feeling
d. it formed because industrialists worked together to expand their wealth and to ensure the subordination of labor
e. it formed because the government acted to protect the position and wealth of the new industrialists
The crystal Palace exhibition of 1851 commemorated the...?
a. industrial dominance of Britain.
b. half-century of labor reforms in Britain.
c. creation of the German Zollverein.
d. Battle of Waterloo.
e. Launching of the Great Eastern.
How did the origins of industialists change as the Industrial Revolution progressed?
a. More industrialists emerged from the working classes as they became accustomed to the new machine technology.
b. Industrialists increasingly emerged from the noble classes, for the nobility recognized the need to expand family wealth and used their political connections to obtain advantages for the new firms.
c. More industrialists emerged from the working classes, as creditors recognized the vast profits in new enterprises and were willing to assume more risk in new ventures.
d. Industrialists increasingly emerged from the migrant communities, who carried new technologies across borders.
e. It became harder to form new firms, and instead industrialists were increasingly likely to have inherited their wealth.
William Cockerill was...?
a. the inventor of the spinning jenny
b. the chief financial backer of the first commercial railway in England
c. an English carpenter who built cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium
d. the prime minister of Britain who opposed the Factory Act of 1833
e. the British general at Waterloo
f. the name of Payton/P$'s dog
Who were the Luddites?
a. German merchants who organized into corporations to finance new textiles factories
b. Irish peasants who formed secret societies against British landowners
c. Dutch agricultural workers who rebelled against their falling standard of living in comparison to the urban workers
d. British handicraft workers who attacked factories and destroyed machinery they believed were putting them out of work
e. Scottish Highlanders who formed community groups that worked building railroads across Great Britain
The key development that allowed continental banks to shed their earlier conservative nature was the
a. industrialization of the continent
b. establishment of limited liability investment
c. replacement of the old managers with young, aggressive investment bankers
d. recruitment of bank deposits from the landed aristocracy
e. influx of British investment
How was the life of nonagricultural workers transformed between 1760 and 1830?
a. Workers prospered most during years of war when their labor was most valuable
b. Workers' housing improved significantly when they moved into new factory towns
c. Workers worked in much more dangerous conditions
d. Workers ate poorer diets when they moved away from the countryside
e. Workers worked many more days per year
In The Condition of the Working Class in England, Friedrich Engels stated that...?
a. The social problems in Britain were not a product of the Industrial Revolution.
b. The British middle classes were guilty of "mass murder" and "wholesale robbery."
c. In general, the living conditions of the working class were slowly improving.
d. The class-consciousness of the working class would lead to social revolution
e. The working class was itself responsible for most of the problems its members faced.
Workers resisted moving from cottage work into factories for all of the following reasons except...?
a. They had to follow the pace and work schedule of the machines.
b. They had to be at work every day and follow a strict schedule.
c. They were under the constant, demanding supervision of overseers.
d. They received substantially lower wages than cottage work.
e. They were consistently punished if they broke work rules.