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Law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system

what are the three main components into which the contemporary criminal justice system is generally divided?

social control

because some individuals are so dangerous that must be outlawed outright or regulated, the contemporary criminal justice society uses the instrument known as:

preliminary hearing

in procedural order, which of the following comes first in the formal criminal justice process

Miranda warning

when the police want to interrogate or question a suspect, the office must first advise the suspect of his/her rights. This is called a(n):

arraignment

at what stage of the formal criminal justice process does the defendant enter a plea of guilty or not guilty

crime control

which justice perspective holds that the proper role of the justice system is to prevent crime through the judicious use of criminal sanctions, and demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law

equal justice

if you believe in the concept of "just desserts", which justice perspective do you favor?

equal justice

truth-in-sentencing laws are an aspect of which justice system perspective

legislative

which branch of government defines the law by determining what conduct is prohibited and establishes criminal penalties for those who violate the law

consensus

according to the ____ view of crime, behaviors that become crimes are essentially harmful to a majority of citizens and therefore there is general agreement regarding which behaviors need to be controlled

prostitution

which of the following is a public order crime?

uniform crime report

which of the following is considered official crime data collected by the FBI?

summer

in which season do the greatest numbers of reported crimes occur?

truth-in-sentencing laws

which laws require that convicted felons spend a significant portion of their sentence behind bars?

conflict

which view of crime promotes that there is a class struggle between the rich and the poor?

general deterrence

the idea that a potential criminal would fear punishment because they know of someone else who what punished is referred to as:

specific deterrence

which philosophy of punishment advocates severely punishing an offender in an attempt to convince him to permanently cease committing criminal acts?

social structure

which group of theories equates poverty with high crime rates

social control

____theory focuses on a persons's bonds to society as a factor in preventing crime

model their behavior after others and have that behavior positively reinforced

according to social learning theory, people become violent because they:

their level of self-control

the general theory of crime suggests that differences between individuals in the tendency to commit criminal acts stems from:

testosterone

excessive levels of _____ have been linked to violence and aggression

defining crimes and their punishment

substantive criminal law is primarily concerned with:

public law

which type of law deals with the state of government agencies and controls their administrative relationships with individuals, corporations, or other branches of government

criminal

civil law includes all of the following except:

ex post facto laws

laws that are created and retroactively enforced are known as:

torts

which of the following is not one of the categories that crimes are classified into?

mens rea

criminal negligence is a form of:

self-defense

which of the following is not a type of excuse defense

whether the defendant voluntarily becomes intoxicated by using drugs or alcohol

the effect of intoxication upon criminal liability depends on:

the predisposition of the defendant

which of the following is the determining factor in a successful defense of entrapment?

consent

statutory rape is an example of a crime that conclusively negates the use of what excuse

fifth

the ____ amendment limits the admissibility of confessions that have been obtained

duress

which defense would be most applicable to the situation of a bank employee forced to divert funds into a special account by criminals who are holding her family hostage

fourteenth

the ____ amendment is the vehicle used to apply the protection of the Bill of Rights to the sttes

fourth

which constitutional amendment outlaws illegal searches and seizures by police

right to bear arms

which of the following is not considered an element of criminal procedure

communication

the first technological breakthrough is policing came in the area of:

no single federal agency has unlimited jurisdiction

which federal law enforcement agency has unlimited jurisdiction

U.S. attorney general

who heads the U.S department of justice

U.S. Marshals

what federal agency is responsible for the transporting of federal prisoners

data mining

what term is used to describe the use of computer software to conduct analysis of behavioral patterns in an effort to link open cases to known perpetrators

computerized fingerprint system

AFIS is a(n):

private police are concerned almost solely with prevention

how do private police compare with public police?

hierarchical

most police agencies are organized in a ___ manner

order maintenance

while police patrol has many objectives, most police experts agree that the majority of police patrol efforts are devoted to:

proactive

police stopping motorists to issue citations and aggressively arresting suspicious persons is an example of what type of policing

sting operations

what term is used to describe organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly committing illegal acts or conspiring to engage in criminal activity

productive interaction with the community being serve

community-oriented policing links police effectiveness to:

problem-oriented policing (POP)

the concept of hot spots of crime is most closely associated with which model of policing

chief

who is responsible for setting policy and has general administrative control in smaller police departments

broken windows policing

what model sees the role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety

uniformed police officers

who are considered the backbone of a police department

vice squads

who is assigned to enforce morality-based laws, such as those addressing prostitution and gambling

enhanced crime-fighting ability

according to research, which of the following is NOT a benefit associated with higher education for police officers

the secrecy and insulation from others in society that is a consequence of the police subculture

the term "blue curtain" describes:

law enforcer

an officer who approaches a group of teenagers drinking beer, checks everyone's ID, and arrests everyone who is underage would typify which style of policing

crime fighter

an officer that approaches a group of teenagers standing in a parking low, checks them for gang symbols, and calls into the station to ascertain if any of them have active warrants, arresting those with a warrant, exemplifies which style of policing

traffic stop

in which of the following situations would a police officer exercise the greatest amount of discretion

implementation of an accountability system

which remedy of police corruption makes police supervisors responsible for the behavior of the officers they command?

they both think that white police officers are more professional

which belief do white and black police officers not share?

domestic violence cases

which type of case is often a source of frustration and futility for police officers making them reluctant to respong

demeanor

what term is used to describe the way a person outwardly manifests his or her personality

during the middle years

when do officers usually feel the effects of the stress of their profession

probable cause

the fourth amendment specifically states that no warrants shall be issued but opon_____

arrest

a _____ occurs when a police officer takes a person into custody or deprives a person of freedom for having allegedly committed a criminal offense

a judge

search warrants are typically issues by

particularity requirement

the requirement that a search warrant state precisely where the search is to take place and what items are to be seized is referred to as:

the use of thermal imaging devices to search for marijuana in a suspect's house or garage

which of the following searches falls outside of the protection of the plain view doctrice

the right to face one's accuser

which of the following is NOT mandated by Miranda vs. Arizona (1966)

lineup

placing a suspect in a group for the purpose of being viewed and identified by a witness is called a

fruit of the poisonous tree

the exclusionary rule has also been extended to include derivate, or secondary evidence, also called;

good faith exception

the principle that evidence may be used in criminal trial even though the search warrant used to obtain it was technically faulty, as long as the police acted without malice when they sought the warrant

public safety doctrine

the principle that a suspect can be questioned in the field without a Miranda warning if the information the police seek is needed to protect public safety

plea bargaining

discussions between defense counsel and prosecution in which the accused agrees to plead guilty in exchange for certain considerations, such as reduced changes, is referred to as:

court of limited jurisdiction

a court which has jurisdiction over misdemeanors and conducts preliminary investigations of felony charges is referred to as:

courts of limited jurisdiction

misdemeanor courts and municipal courts are examples of:

a court of general jurisdiction

a state or federal court which has jurisdictions over felonies is referred to as:

U.S. district courts

courts which have jurisdiction over cases involving violations of federal laws, including civil rights abuses, interstate transportation of stolen property, and kidnapping are called:

9 members appointed by the president and approved by congress

the supreme court of the U.S. is comprised of:

writ of certiorari

an order of a superior court requesting that a record of an inferior court be brought forward for review or inspection

the rule of four

the convention that a certain number of justices must agree to hear a case before a writ is granted is called:

judge

the senior officer in a court of law, who is authorized to hear and decide cases

missouri plan

a method of judicial selection that combines a judicial nominating commission, executive appointment, and nonpartisan confirmation elections

arbitration

a process of dispute resolution in which a neutral third party renders a decision after a hearing at which both parties agree to be heard

prosecutor

an appointed elected member of the practicing bar who is responsible for bringing the state's case against the accused

grand jury

a group of citizens chosen to hear charges against a person accused of a crime and to determine if there is sufficient evidence to proceed to trial

diversion

the use of an alternative to trial, such as referral to a treatment or employment programs is called;

defense attorney

legal counsel in a criminal case who represents the accused person from arrest to appeal

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