Psych Final Review

80 terms by Gilgfro35 

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Natalie and Ray are seeing Dr. Becker for marital issues. Neither one of them has any psychopathology, but they are interested in strengthening their relationship. Dr. Becker is most likely a _________________ psychologist.

counseling

A unified understanding of explanations provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other psychological perspectives is most clearly provided by

biopsychosocial approach

Research results showed that experimental Drug R had a minimal to modest effect in reducing the symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The hypothesis that 200 mg of Drug R will reduce GAD symptoms by 25% as evidenced by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale needs to be revised by increasing to 300 mg. This increase is a manipulation of the

independent variable

You just found out that the homecoming queen and captain of the football team from your high school are splitting up. You think back to the last time you saw them together and have the feeling that you could have predicted their divorce. Which of the following is the most likely cause for your feeling?

hindsight bias

The work groups that neurons cluster into are known as

neural networks

In 1949, Moruzzi and Magoun severed a cat's _____________ from higher brain regions; the cat lapsed into a permanent coma.

reticular formation

Cultural groups have their own ____________, which are the rules for accepted and expected behavior.

norms

When trying to interpret a bar graph, do not be fooled. Make sure to check the _____________ and note their _____________.

scale labels; range

A game of peak-a-boo with his Dad excites William during the first six months of his life because William actually thinks his Dad has disappeared. This is because William lacks

object permanence

A person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly (e.g., solving novel logic problems) decreases slowly up to about age 75, then more rapidly, especially after age 85. This type of ability is also known as

fluid intelligence

The opponent-process theory is most useful for explaining the characteristics of

afterimages

The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters is called the

pupil

The cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs make up the

inner ear

Rules for organizing stimuli into coherent groups were first identified by

Gestalt psychologists

A neutral facial expression may be perceived as sadder at a funeral than at a circus. This best illustrates

a context effect

The 90-minute sleep cycle provides an example of

a biological rhythm

Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person had become a(n)

conditioned stimulus (CS)

Walter was bitten by a dog when he was five-years-old. To this day, he will not pet dogs; however, he will pet cats. This reaction best illustrates

discrimination

One main difference between punishment and reinforcement is that the goal of reinforcement is to ____________ a behavior, while the goal of punishment is to ____________ a behavior.

increase;decrease

At work, there is a vending machine that gives extra candy bars when you select either the "A" or "B" choices. You continue to frequent this machine regularly. This best illustrates

operant conditioning

In Bandura's experiment, compared to children not exposed to the adult model, those who observed the model's aggressive outburst were ________________ to lash out at the doll.

much more likely

Lara is trying to remember events from her life as an 18-month-old. However, as hard as she might try, she has no conscious memory for anything that occurred before her third birthday. This is likely due to the fact that her ______________, which is involved storing explicit memories, was not fully developed at that age.

hippocampus

The retention of encoded information over time is called

storage

Nine-year-old Juno is scheduled to take an intelligence test next week, but his mother cannot remember the name of the test. Which of the following is most likely the test he will be taking?

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)

___________ is the extent to which a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure.

validity

Researchers find that conformity to the group increases when all of the following occur EXCEPT

one is made to feel secure

Interviewers that ask questions such as "How organized are you?" or "How well do you handle stress?" are conducting a(n)

unstructured interview

Sylvia is in charge of hiring a new employee for a demanding position. The personnel department has told her she can use only one assessment tool in her search. Which of the following assessment tools is most likely to help Sylvia find the right person for the job?

aptitude tests

When people are open with their own feelings, drop their facades, and are self-disclosing, they are displaying

genuineness

The proper order of Freud's psychosexual stages is

oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

Personality inventories are to _______________ as projective tests are to _______________.

objective scoring; subjective scoring

Lately, Harold and Grant cannot get along. Harold often expects the worst of people, and yesterday he thought Grant was mad at him. As a result, Harold ignored Grant's phone calls and other attempts at conversation, angering Grant. But in truth, Harold created the situation to which he was reacting. This is an example of:

reciprocal determinism

David Rosenhan and colleagues conducted a study examining the biasing power of diagnostic labels. They went to mental hospital admissions offices and complained of "hearing voices" saying "empty", "hollow," and "thud. " This was the only complaint they reported and displayed no other symptoms. They were all:

diagnosed as mentally ill and the causes for their disorders were "discovered"

After study participants were told that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases like "passive type" or "frightened of his own impulses." This study best illustrates the:

biasing power of diagnostic labels

30-year-old Nellie has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Her selective attention is deficient, she is unable to ignore irrelevant stimuli, and she often gives her undivided attention to minute stimuli (e.g., a spotlight shining in a window). This type of attention problem is thought to contribute to:

disorganized thoughts

A sudden loss of memory is one symptom of a(n):

dissociative disorder

Professor Skyler studies personality disorders and is most interested in people who are self-focused and exaggerate their own importance. People with this type of personality disorder have a hard time dealing with criticism, sometimes reacting with rage or shame. Professor Skyler is studying people with:

narcissistic personality disorder

At his weekly therapy session, Henry became agitated at his therapist, saying that she was controlling, domineering, and trying to ruin his life with all of her mothering. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates:

transference

The most effective psychotherapists are those who:

establish an empathic, caring relationship with their clients

Blake's doctor told her that she should not drink alcohol while taking Xanax. This is because antianxiety agents such as Xanax:

depress central nervous system activity

In December of 1879, he created the very first psychology laboratory in Germany.

Wundt

Dr. Prima has been hired to assess job satisfaction and worker productivity. Dr. Prima is most likely a(n) ______________ psychologist.

Industrial/organizational

Stacey believes that because children are generally more impulsive than adults, they will be more likely than adults to scream when frustrated by a researcher in a laboratory setting. Stacey's prediction regarding anger management is an example of:

hypothesis

Surveys on television news programs and on the Internet tend to ____________ for an unrepresentative sample by simply ________ more people.

compensate;adding

The spinal cord is like an information highway that connects the ______________ to the brain.

Peripheral nervous system

Brain activity results in telltale electrical signals that can be detected by a(n):

electoencephalogram (EEG)

The tendency to exaggerate the impact of parents' child-rearing practices on children's personality has been most characteristic of:

Freudian psychologist

One person in a group of ten people is ten times older than any of the other members. With respect to age, it is most likely that the majority of group members are younger than the group's:

mean

According to Piaget, during this stage of cognitive development, abstract logic and the potential for mature moral reasoning are formed.

formal operational

The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement is known as:

the social clock

The retina's receptor cells are the _____ and _____.

rods &cones

The brain interprets loudness from the number of _______ a sound activates.

hair cells

What theory explains how people discriminate high-pitched sounds with a frequency greater than 5000 Hz?

place theory

After hearing that Bryce had served a prison sentence, Janet began to perceive his genuinely friendly behavior as insincere and manipulative. This best illustrates the impact of:

perceptual set

People deprived of visual experience early in life will later have difficulty perceiving individual human faces as having:

a whole form

Which of the following is characteristic of REM sleep?

genital arousal

In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus, that after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response.

conditioned stimulus (CS)

In classical conditioning, this is the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

unconditioned response (UR)

You received a great money-saving credit card offer in the mail complete with a rewards program. You read on further to find that the one dollar for every mile spent may not be such a great offer after all since getting a $500.00 airline ticket only happens after you acquire 25,000 miles or spend $25,000. This is a ________ schedule.

fixed-ratio

Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a _____________ schedule of reinforcement.

fixed-ratio

Tina's goal is to raise children who enjoy playing musical instruments. Given what you know about observational learning, which of the following would you recommend to her?

tina should do all of these to foster musical enjoyment in her children

A group of 50-year-old adults is asked to think about their high school classmates. Although they have difficulty recalling their classmates, when presented with their yearbooks they can recognize about _____ percent of their pictures and names.

90

The extensive rehearsal necessary to encode nonsense syllables best illustrates:

effortful processing

Although Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her anger and responds to her sister's frustration with empathy. Her behavior best illustrates:

emotional intelligence

Women have been found to score lower on math tests when they are tested alongside men. This best illustrates the impact of:

stereotype threat

As you are driving to campus one day another car cuts you off and speeds ahead. Immediately you yell out "Crazy driver!" not realizing that the person may be rushing to get to the hospital. Your judgment best illustrates:

the fundamental attribution error

Thanks to the efforts of __________________, ATM machines are more complex than VCRs but are easier to operate.

human factors psychologists

Personnel psychology is one of the main subfields of:

I/O psychology

Gene has always had trouble with her weight. She was not breast-fed when she was an infant and seems to overcompensate now. Which psychosexual stage is Gene fixated in?

oral

Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of:

repression

After repeated verbal abuse and lack of opportunities at her place of employment, Marie feels like there is no hope for advancement and even shuns the idea of finding a new job. Her reaction best illustrates:

learned helplessness

______________ is a statistical procedure that can be used to identify clusters of behaviors that are related to a trait.

factor analysis

Major depressive disorder is a mood disorder characterized by signs of depression (e.g., lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in family, friends, and activities). To be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, these signs must:

last for two or more weeks

For the past four weeks, Odessa has been feeling lethargic and worthless. Her friends are worried because she no longer shows interest in her normal social activities. It is very likely that Odessa is suffering from:

major depressive disorder

_____________ is to an absence of appropriate behaviors as _____________ is to an excess of inappropriate behaviors.

negative symptoms; positive symptoms

People who are troubled by repetitive thoughts or actions are suffering from:

OCD

In stressful situations, people with an antisocial personality disorder show _____________ when compared with people unaffected by the disorder.

less fear & less autonomic arousal

Systematic desensitization is a form of:

exposure therapy

_______________ is the therapeutic technique developed by _______________. The goal of this type of therapy is to help patients gain insight into repressed impulses and conflicts.

psychoanalysis; freud

_______________ is a type of treatment that physically changes the brain's functioning.

biomedical therapy

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