Anatomy Vocab Chapter 4

30 terms by Rachellesmith7 

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Apocrine gland

Sweat glands in the pubic and underarm areas that secrete thicker sweat, that produce odor. (secretions contain water, salts, fatty acids, and proteins)

Arrector pili

a smooth muscle attached to hair follicles that causes "goose bumps" to appear on the skin when contracted

Cutaneous membrane

the skin; composed of epidermal and dermal layers

Dermis

the deep layer of the skin; composed of dense, irregular connective tissue

Eccrine gland

found all over the body, they produce sweat, important in part of the body's heat-regulating equipment. Supplied with nerve endings that cause them to secrete sweat when the external temperature or body temperature is high.

Epidermis

the outer layers of the skin; an epithelium

Epithelial membrane

composed of epithelial tissue and an underlying layer of connective tissue. (also called covering and lining membranes, include the cutaneous membrane, the mucous membranes, and the serous membranes.

Exocrine Gland

glands that have ducts through which their secretions are carried to a body surface (skin or mucosa)

Hair follicle

slightly slanted compound structures. The inner epidermal sheath is composed of epithelial tissue and forms the hair. The outer dermal sheath is actually dermal connective tissue. Dermal region supplies blood vessels to the epidermal portion/reinforces it.

Reticular layer

the deepest skin layer, contains irregularly arranged connective tissue fibers, as well as blood vessels, sweat and oil glands and deep pressure receptors called lamellar corpuscles.

Sebaceous gland

glands that empty their sebum secretion into hair follicles.

Keratin

a tough, insoluble protein found in tissues such as hair, nails, and epidermis of the skin.

Melanin

the dark pigment synthesized by melanocytes responsible for skin color.

Melanocytes

Cells that produce melanin.

Mucous membrane

membrane that forms the linings of body cavities open to the exterior (digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts)

Nail

a scale-like modification of the epidermis that corresponds to the hoof or claw of other animals. Has a free edge, a body(visible attached portion), and a root (embedded in the skin).

Papillary layer

the upper dermal region. It is uneven and has peglike projections from its superior surface, called dermal papillae, which indent the epidermis above.

Pericardium

the membranous sac enveloping the heart.

Peritoneum .

the serous membrane lining the interior of the abdominal cavity and covering the surfaces of the abdominal organs.

Pleura

the serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity.

Synovial membrane

membrane that lines the fibrous capsule of a synovial joint.

Sebum

the oily secretion of sebaceous glands.

Serous fluid

a clear, watery fluid secreted by the cells of a serous membrane.

Serous membrane

membrane that lines a cavity without an opening to the outside of the body (except for joint cavities, which have a synovial membrane); serosa.

Stratum basale

the deepest cell layer of the epidermis, lies closest to the dermis and is connected to it along a wavy borderline that resembles corrugated cardboard.

Stratum corneum

the outermost layer, 20 to 30 cell layers thick and accounts for ¾ of the epidermal thickness. Shinglelike dead cell remnants, full of keratin. The layer provides a durable overcoat for the body. Protects deeper cells from hostile environment(air) and from water loss. Resists biological, chemical, and physical assaults. Layer is replaced by cells produced by the division of the deeper stratum basale cells. New epidermis every 25 to 45 days. (flakes off as dandruff)

Subcutaneous tissue

essentially is adipose tissue. Not part of the skin, but it does anchor the skin to underlying organs and provides a site for nutrient (fat) storage. The tissue serves as a shock absorber and insulates the deeper tissues from the extreme temperature changes occurring outside the body. (responsible for women's curves).

Sudoriferous (sweat) gland:

the glands that produce a saline solution called sweat.

Sweat

a clear secretion that is primarily water plus some salts (sodium chloride), vitamin C, traces of metabolic wastes (ammonia, urea, uric acid), and lactic acid(the chemical that accumulates during vigorous muscle activity) sweat is acidic pH from 4-6. Sweat reaches the surface through ducts that opens as a pore.

Integumentary system

the skin and its accessory organs.

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