/a/ short or long schwa: as the a in above or ago
/aa/ long open back unrounded vowel: as the a in father
/ i / short close front unrounded vowel: as i in bit
/ iː / long close front unrounded vowel: as i in machine
/ u / short close back rounded vowel: as u in put
/ uː / long close back rounded vowel: as oo in school
/ri/ short syllabic vowel-like retroflex approximant: approximately as American English bird or meter
/ l / short syllabic vowel-like retroflex-lateral approximant: approx. as handle
/k/ unaspirated velar voiceless plosive; (k)
/ q /, pronounced alone it is / q /, similar to the English queen; (q)
/ kh / as the c in English cat. Aspirated voiceless velar plosive; (kh)
/ x / the voiceless velar fricative as the ending of the German doch. Many incorrectly pronounce it as / kh / (ख) instead; (kh)
/ja/ (as in 'jug'); (j)
/ z /, pronounced alone it is / z /, similar to the English zip; (z)
/ta/ (as in table or tommy); (t'))
/tha/ (with a hard t); (th')
/between 'ta' and 'tha'/ (t is a little harder than the); (t)
/pa/ (as in painter); (p)
/pha/ representing a heavily aspirated /p/ sound. It is a combination of sounds /p/ and /h/; (ph)
/ f /, pronounced alone it is / f /, similar to the English fish; (f)
(bh) representing a heavily aspirated sound /b/. It is a combination of the sounds /b/ and /h/
usually representing the sound / j /, often transliterated as y. Pronounced alone it is / j / like the beginning of the English word yum (y)
/ r /, often transliterated as r. Pronounced alone it is / r / similar to the beginning of the English word run
/ l /, often transliterated as l. Pronounced alone it is / l / similar to the beginning of the English word love
often transliterated as v. Pronounced alone it is typically between the English v and w, though dialects range almost to each end of the spectrum between v and w
pronounced alone it is similar to the English ship; (ś)
pronounced alone it is similar to the English ship, but with retroflex articulation; (ś)
/ s /, pronounced alone it is / s /, similar to the English sun; (s)
/ h /, pronounced alone it is / h /, similar to the English hub; (h)
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