Ch 10 Classification of Microorganisms

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Part of Exam 3 ( Ch 10, 6,7 & 11)

Taxonomy

the science of classification

What does the different taxa show?

shows degrees of similarities among organisms.

Phylogeny

the study of the evolutionary or phylogenetic relationships.

Phylogenetic

from a common ancestor

Who proposed the 3 Kingdom of Classification?

Ernst Heinrich Haeckal

What are the 3 Kingdoms of Classification?

Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Animalia, Kingdom Plantae

Who proposed the 5 kingdom of classification?

Robert Whittaker

What are the 5 kingdoms?

Kingdom Procaryotae or Monera, Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Animalia

Who grouped all organisms into 3 domains?

Carl R. Woese

What are the 3 domains?

Domain Bacteria, Domain Archaea, Domain Eukarya

What is the basis for the domain classification?

based on the similarities in nucleotide sequences in ribosomal RNA.

Domain Bacteria

All of the pathogenic prokaryotes as well as many of the nonpathogenic prokaryotes found in soil and water.

Domain Archaea

Prokaryotes that do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls. T

What are the 3 major groups of Domain Archaea?

A. The extreme halophiles, which require high concentrations of salt for survival.
B. The hyperthermophiles, which normally grow in hot acidic environments.
C. The methanogens, which are strict anaerobes that produce methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

Domain Eukarya

Animals, fungi, plants, and protists

Who devised the binomial nomenclature?

Carolus Linnaeus

What are the 2 names given to each organism?

1. Genus
2. Specific epithet or species

Who assigns the rules for assigning names to newly classified bacteria?

The International Committee of Systematic Bacteriology

What has to happen in order for a new bacteria to be put into Bergey's Manual?

Publishes the descriptions of newly classified bacteria and evidence for their classifications

How are new bacteria named?

Must be taken from Latin according to Bacteriological Code.

What is the taxonomic hierarchy (in order) ?

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum or Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Which book contains the classification of bacteria according to evolutionary relatedness?

Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology

Define a bacterial species?

a population of cells with similar characteristics

Define a bacterial strain?

a group of cells all derived from a single cell.

How are bacterial strains identified?

identified by numbers, letters, or names that follow the specific epithet.

In which domain are viruses classified?

not classified in any of the 3 domains

Which book is used for the identification of bacteria?

Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology

Describe how morphological characteristics are used to ID (identify) bacteria.

Characteristics such as presence or absence of endospores or the presence of and the number and location of the flagella can be used to identify bacteria

Describe how differential staining is used to ID (identify) bacteria.

characteristics are based on the chemical composition of the cell walls.

Describe how biochemical tests are used to ID (identify) bacteria.

the ability to ferment an assortment of carbohydrate molecules like lactose, producing acid and gas can be used to differentiate between the species.

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