a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
behaivor that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli
Law of Effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 329)
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: Negative reinforcement is not punishment.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 329)
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer.
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
a process in classical conditioning by which the association of a neutral stimulus with a natural stimulus is first established
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus creating a second, weaker conditioned stimulus
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
the processing of information into the memory system
the retention of encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the info is stored or forgotten
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
loss of memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
Three Sins of Forgetting
1: Absent-mindedness: inattention to details leads to encoding failure
2: Transience: storage decay over time
3: Blocking: inaccessibility of stored info
Three Sins of Distortion
1: Misattribution: confusing the source of info
2: Suggestibility: the lingering effects of misinformation
3: Bias: belief-colored recollections
Sin of Intrusion
Persistance: unwanted memories
a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
Gardner's Eight INtelligences
linguistic, logico-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
the ability to percieve, understand, manage, and use emotions
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
a widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca × 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound
a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup