Unit 4: Cell Transport

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Hypertonic

There is a greater concentration of solute molecules OUTSIDE the cell than inside.

Hypotonic

There is a LOWER concentration of solute molecules OUTSIDE the cell than inside.

Isotonic

There is the SAME concentration of solute molecules outside the cell as inside.

Turgor Pressure

The pressure inside a plant cell caused by water pushing against the cell wall.

Cytolosis

The SWELLING and BURSTING of animal cells when water enters. This happens when an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic solution.

Increase

Placing plant cells in a HYPOTONIC solution will causes the osmotic pressure to ______________.

Phasmolysis

The SHRINKING of plant cells when water leaves so the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall. It happens when a plant cell is placed into a hypertonic solution.

Decrease

When water leaves a plant cell, the osmotic pressure (turgor pressure) will ______________.

Solvent

The substance that is NOT water is called the ______________.

Down the concentration gradient

During diffusion molecules tend to move ____________________.

Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.

Facilitated Diffusion

Glucose enters cells by this.

Going through the tunnel made by integral protein.

Water enters cells by ____________.

Mitochondria

Energy for active transport comes from a cell's ___________________.

Endocytosis

A cell must EXPEND energy to transport substances using ___________________.

Endocytosis

White blood cells engulf, digest, and destroy invading bacteria using ___________________.

Integral

The carrier proteins that help is facilitated diffusion are _____________________ proteins.

Diffusion, osmosis, simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, ion channels

Kinds of passive transport.

Vesicle

Endocytosis and exocytosis both create a small pocket called a ________________.

Glycolipid

Carbohydrates that are attached to a phospholipid are called ________________.

Glycoprotein

Carbohydrates that are attached to a PROTEIN are called _________________. They indicate the type of cell.

Move into the cell

Placing an animal cell in a hypotonic solution will cause water to _________________.

Exocytosis

Golgi bodies use ___________ to release large molecules from inside to outside the cell.

Mitochondria

The cell organelles that burn glucose and make energy for active transport are the ___________________________.

Facilitated

During _________________ diffusion, carrier proteins (integral proteins) act as a tunnel from one side of the membrane to another.

Integral Protein

An _________________________ is a membrane protein that helps move molecules across a cell membrane.

Concentration Gradient

A _______________________ forms whenever there is a difference in concentration between one place and another.

Down

When molecules move from high to low concentration along a concentration gradient we say they are moving _______________ the gradient.

Turgor Pressure

_______________ is caused by water inside a plant cell pushing against the cell wall.

Plasmolysis

The shrinking of a plant cell membrane away from the cell wall when placed in a hypertonic solution is called _____________________.

Endocytosis

White blood cells use ____________________ to engulf and destroy bacteria that the glycoproteins recognize as "not self".

Lyse

The swelling and bursting of animal cells when placed in a hypotonic solution is called ______________________.

Integral

Proteins (like carrier proteins) that stick into the cell membrane and span all the way through are called ___________ proteins.

Peripheral

Proteins which are part of the membrane but do NOT span all the way through are called __________________.

Phospholipids

Main component of the cell membrane.

Cholesterol

Prevents close packing of the lipids.

Proteins

Transport ions through the membrane

Concentration Gradient

The unequal distribution of particles.

Osmotic Pressure

The water pressure in cells.

Turgor Pressure

The water pressure in PLANT cells.

Plasmolysis

Process where the cell membrane pulls AWAY from the cell due to water loss.

Diffusion

High to low concentration.

Osmosis

The diffusion of water.

Facilitated Diffusion

"needs a passageway" and uses proteins.

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