A component of a message that contains information that directly relates to some dreaded effects that could be suffered by the persuadee or a person for whom they are responsible.
One of several compliance gaining identifications. A conceptual breakthrough in the attitude-to-behavior paradigm. People often infer their attitudes from their behavior; an example is "I must like (attitude) brown bread because I often eat it (behavior). AKB (emotional) is a variation of the knowledge-attitude behavior model that occurs when people like their behavior and discovers supporting knowledge. An example of this is when employees say they like their jobs after working so many years to rationalize why they have worked there for those years. (Like simply works because a person seeks compliance based (according to this one of several strategies developed by Marwell and Schmidt, because we ask others to comply because they like us
the persuader approaches an individual with a request that is so demanding or outrageous that it would most likely be refused. Then, the persuader presents a smaller and more reasonable request which was the intended request. The individual accepts the second request because it seems smaller than the first. If the persuader had a simply made a smaller first he would have been turned down, but because the larger one was presented first the individual views the second option as a gain over the first offer. Another way to put this is that the individual reciprocates with compliance to the concession.
assumes that people want correct and useful attitudes and will expend the effort needed to obtain and process information.
According to Petty & Cacioppo: high involvement can enhance persuasion if the message contains cogent arguments and if people have enough knowledge regarding an issue to enable them to process issue-relevant statements.
a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.
We conceptualize an attitude as learned likes an ddislikes, evaluations that predispose behavioral choices.
an attitude position they currently hold. present in the mind whenever a person receives a new message. Each new message is compounded to this existing attitude and is evaluated by considering the extent to which the two are similar or dissimilar.
Central Cognitive Processing
When people experience high levels of involvement; they pay attention to messages and scrutinize them by comparing them against existing information and arguments. Requires mindful cognitive processing that includes evaluation of the message content.
The right and ability each participant has to define direct and delimit the actions that transpire during an interaction
Study of how people communicate with distance and space, ranging from architecture to the positioning of one's body in relation to another's during an interaction
Final stage of relationship dissolution. After the "break up" the relaying the retrospection of the "break up" story to acquaintance.
A contest for scarce resources or positions in which participants are ego-involved
conversational styles that affect how easily people interact
Orientation Stage of Disclosure
Occurs in public places; the level of intimacy is similar to when people first meet and start to become acquainted.
Depth/Quality of Disclosure
the quality of the relationship where levels of disclosure tend to follow norms of reciprocity; intimate disclosure for intimate disclosure
individuals using information received verbally as well as non-verbally during interaction to interpret who their partner is and why he or she acts in a certain way.
states that individuals usually can think of social behaviors (especially communication) needed to achieve communication goals. Gives researchers the challenge of seeing how individuals select strategies from their repertoire when confronted with multiple functions.
assumes that communication competence depends on individuals' ability to perform in ways that enhance interactions in order to achieve their goals.
When people like one another, their communication patterns are likely to converge, be similar. When they don't like one another, their patterns are likely to diverge, to be dissimilar.
in every day activities, people engage in a relatively unsophisticated version of observation similar to the analysis social scientists use during lab experiments to make attributions
Attribution by Person
(situation or entity): Aspect such as age, gender, race, name, background.etc. that help reach conclusions (attribution) about other individuals
where by one person asks the other about the condition of the relationship
Trail intimacy moves
including becoming physically close or touching, disclosure, or public presentation in which the target individual is put on display or confronted with information to observe his or her actions.
information seeking activity testing limits physical separation, forced choices.
used to check quality of relationship; used to see if target individual will respond by showing jealousy (going out or flirting with others, for example)
used to check quality of relationship by testing whether the partner will remain faithful or violate the relationship
is how people come together through interaction. There are several reasons for convergence to occur, such as desire for approval, sensitivity to interpersonal cues, perceived attitudinal similarity, communication effectiveness, competence, social attractiveness, similarity, communication effectiveness, competence, social attractiveness, communicator warmth, or desire for social identification.
Plans that are too complex
if a plan is too complex then the person employing it may suffer a loss of fluency because she or he can't decide variation of the plan to employ at a given moment
Behavior is a product of two factors: (a) attitude toward the action, and (b) belief about the subjective norms held by significant others who favor or disapprove of the action. In other words, this theory argues that behavior results from a collinear interaction between the attitude that a specific action is rewarding - or not- and awareness of social pressures or norms favoring or disfavoring it.
Reception entails those processes by which a person is attentive to and considers a message. Yielding refers to the stage when the person allows the message to influence his or her attitudes or behavior.
is observational learning. Other people are used as models. If an individual believes that he or she can perform as the model does, then action is likely given the assumption that action will produce the same rewards as it did for the model.
refers to vocal elements that accompany, complement, contradict, or substitute for vocalized words. These elements include vocal qualities, characterizers, qualifiers, and segregates, or hesitancies.
Foot in the door
If people can be prompted to make a minimal proattitudinal commitment, they are likely to agree subsequently to an even larger request on the same subject.
refers to the process of the breaking up of relationships by the voluntary activity of at least one partner.
depends on whether the source is perceived to be expert, trustworthy, or affiliated with groups the receivers view positively. High credibility sources are more likely to create opinion change than are low credibility sources. The assumption is that information is more accurate and opinion is more useful if they are provided by credible sources.
is the study of body movement, posture, and gestures. can involve studying whether leaning toward a person during a conversation shows signs of liking for that person, or whether leaning is a threat.
They communicate to get over the relationship; to do so they engage in retrospection, and present the "breakup" story to their acquaintances.
an attitude position they currently hold. Present in the mind whenever a person receives a new message. Each new message is compounded to this existing attitude and is evaluated by considering the extent to which the two are similar or dissimilar.
relates to conversational styles that affect how easily people interact.
Orientation Stage of Disclosure
occurs in public areas at this stage, the level of intimacy is that typical of initial interactions when people first meet and start to become acquainted. Tone of conversations are likely to be cautious and exploratory.
three indices: vulnerability, reward dependability and confidence. results when reward dependability is high if one partner can depend on the other for rewards
refers to points that are presented early in a message or campaign
refers to the points that are received at the end of a message
depends on one person using the other for self confirmation.
Pregiving Compliance gaining
Can be based on liking, debt, moral appeal, pregiving (whereby the source gives the reward in advance of the requested action)
People communicate in all contexts-interpersonal, organizational and mediated - to obtain information because uncertainty is uncomfortable.
the product of our atitude toward the choice & our willingness to let others influence our choice.
Persuasive ( forewarnings)
telling persons that counter message coming.
a concept describing how willing or resistant a person is to receive and yield to a persuasive message