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Class Review

Under parens Patriae,

the King as sovereign acts to protect the children and other dependents

Offenders that are placed in corrections:

Are still part of the juvenile justice system

Sheriff's Deputies and Police Officers

are the law enforcement officers who have the most amount of contact with juveniles

The booking stage:

is where information is obtained about juvenile suspects, including their names, addresses and ages.

Arraignments

are proceedings for establishing a trial date where a formal plea to charges is entered

Over two million juveniles come into contact with the following system annually:

Criminal Justice

Regarding decisions about juvenile offenders, intake officers have:

considerable discretion

The following are components of the criminal justice system

Law Enforcement, Legislature, and the Courts

Juveniles may be:

taken into custody, arrested, and taken to shelters and group homes

Obtaining one's name, address, fingerprints, photograph, and other vital information is part of the

booking process

The Walnut street Jail was innovative in that it:

segregated male from female inmates, created solitary confinement, and segregated more serious offenders from less serious ones.

The child-saving movement sought to:

provide shelter for wayward youth

Truancy statutes were aimed at;

youths who avoided attending school.

The Uniform Crime Reports publish information about:

reported crime, juvenile delinquency, felonies, and misdemeanors.

The federal juvenile court is called:

there is no federal juvenile courts

The first juvenile court was established in:

Illinois in 1899

Not all juvenile courts operate

the same way

Throughout much of the 20th Century:

juveniles had little or no legal standing in US courts.

Status offenders would include all juveniles who:

commit acts that would be crimes if adults committed them

The mose common age of accountability in the United States is:

21

The idea that a single event or factor is responsible for a large amount of delinquent behavior is a characteristic of:

determinism

Baccaria believed that punishment should be:

swift, certain, and just

Consistent with Beccaria's philosophy is:

Mandatory sentencing

The idea that certain persons are destined to be delinquent is consistent with

deterministic theory

Youths at risk might be

learning-disabled children

Superego

The uncontrolled part of the personality

Fire-starting behavior

has been linked with serious psychological disturbance

Social Learning Theory

suggest that children learn violence from their parents.

Learning-disabled children

are considered to be a part of those "at Risk"

Early intervention for at-risk juveniles

is considered by most professionals as important in delinquency prevention

Discretionary powers of police involving juveniles:

are not limited

Creative solutions for community concerns of police, whereby police officers work closely with the residence, is generally reffered to as

community policing

One reason police officers spend less time today policing juvenile offenders than they did in previous years is:

that juvenile courts tend to be too lenient with offenders, excessive paperwork involving processing juveniles, and that more serious adult offenders are involved.

Police Officer suspicions aroused by youth who are:

not polite enough, too polite, and poorly dressed.

Whenever police officers respond to citizen complaints involving youth, their actions will ususally lead to:

verbal warnings or reprimands

Delinquency among girls:

appears to be increasing at a faster rate that among boys

Juveniles my not have their recoreds

as juveniles erased as the result of an expunement order

Police officers can

fingerprint and photograph juvenile suspects for any reason

Often police officers

determine their response to juveniles on the street depending upon how the juveniles react to them

Community Policing tends to

bring the officers out of their cars and more into the community

Street confrontations with juveniles by police:

may range from verbal warning to the use of deadly force

Female juveniles tend to be :

treated more paternalistically compared with male juveniles when appearing before juvenile court judges

Insuring the juvenile's right to due process,

is a key reason to have an attorney present during intake proceedings

Typically the treatment of juveniles by juvenile courts is:

related to gender

Intake officers may negotiate with

juveniles and their parents and work out an informal resolution of a non-serious case

It is within the discretion of the intake officers:

to place certain juveniles deemed dangerous in secure confinement untill a subsequent juvenile court appearance

The absence of one's parents from an intake proceeding is:

quite regular

The coercive nature of the intake officer role is that intake officer may require youths to:

make restitution, seek counseling, and perform community service.

A common measure of program effectiveness is:

recidivism

Regarding due process rights, juveniles:

have due process rights.

The case of In Re Winship resulted in the standard of:

beyond a reasonable doubt

Changes in the standard of proof in juvenile courts have made cases against juveniles:

more difficult to prove

Fingerprinting and photographing juveniles during the early stages of their process in most jurisdictions is:

Constitutional, conducted, and routine

When cases against juveniles are dismissed with prejudice, this means that prosecutors may:

not bring those charges against the juvenile at a later date

The standard of proof in juvenile court proceedings where one's loss of freedom is a possibility is:

preponderance of the evidence

Juveniles who do not have counsel:

often receive harsher sentences, crime for crime, in adjudicated as delinquent compared with juveniles who do not have counsel and are adjudicated as delinquent.

Juvenile are entitled to:

attorneys as a matter of right in all stages of their delinquent processing

Juveniles ordinarily participate in:

victim-offender mediation programs.

Juvenile justice professionals believe that:

less time ought to transpire between when a juvenile is charged with a delinquent act and the adjudicatory hearing is held regarding the matter.

Juvenile court prosecutors have:

broad discretionary powers relating to filing charges against particular juveniles.

A risk/needs inventory includes

predictions about: one's future dangerousness, the most effective treatments, the most relevant services.

Any circumstance that increases the seriousness of one's delinquent acts is called:

aggravating

Those juveniles who have the greatest chance of becoming career adult offenders are those labeled as:

Chronic offenders

Most juvenile judges regard secure confinement for juveniles as:

a last resort

A common risk component is

age at first adjudication, family relationships, and prior delinquent behavior.

Overcrowding is often a factor responsible for:

the ineffectiveness of rehabilitation in secure juvenile facilities.

Police Officers are not responsible for

completing predispositional reports on juvenile offenders they have arrested

One's alcohol/drug dependencies are often:

major components on needs assessment instruments.

Death or serious injury caused by a juvenile:

is considered a mitigating circumstance

Annually over _______ percent of all juvenile cases refeerred to juvenile courts are resolved informally.

...

Diversion

is a pre-adjudicatory option exercised by juvenile justice system actors, including intake officers and prosecutors.

All juvenile offenders are eligible for

diversion

An unintended consequence of diversions is:

to reduce a juvenile judge's scope of personal power over a particular class of juveniles.

One Unintended consequence of diversion is:

growing cynicism among juvenile justice system is too lenient

Youths can participate in:

drug or alcohol treatment or either group or individual psychotherapy.

Written or verbal warnings issued by juvenile court judges as the sentence imposed at the time of adjudication are:

nominal punishments.

One unintended consequence of diversion is:

net-widening

Diversion works best for:

first time offenders

Informal juries of one's peers are often referred to as:

teen courts

Vocational assistance and job placement are essential functions performed by:

day treatment programs.

Vocational training is:

included as a part of rehabilitative community programming

Home confinement:

is a constitutional intermediate punishment

Scared Straight is:

a program where juvenile offenders actually have lengthy conversations with prisoners in adult prisons.

Probation is:

the most common sentence in juvenile courts.

One problem with obligating youths to make restitution to victims is:

that many of them cannot afford it.

Community service:

may be one condition in a probation program

Home Confinement is:

tougher than most people imagine it is.

Individualized treatments are a part of:

the balanced approach

Typically intensively supervised probation makes it easier to detect:

program violations

Compared with the costs of secure confinement, intermediate punishment programs generally are:

less costly, more rehabilitative, and characterized with lower rates of recidivism

Even with the most current supervisory methods and improvements:

Jail suicides are a viable issue in juvenile corrections.

Many youths who become involved in wilderness experiences:

have low self-esteem and inadequate survival skills

Family group homes are a:

form of non-secure custodial placement

Split sentences occure whenever juvenile court judges give juveniles 50 percent of their original sentence as flat time to be served.

FALSE

Group homes are notorious for their homosexuality>

FALSE

Different aspects of supervising youthful offenders would collectively be termed:

juvenile corrections

When a juvenile's parole program is terminated, this means that the juvenile may be:

returned to secure confinement, placed in a different type of parole program, and or subject to more intensive supervision.

Wilderness clients are ususally

Offenders with disciplinary problems

Privatization of juvenile corrections is :

increasing

Juvenile parole boards have been criticized because they:

lack uniform standards governing parole decision making, are subjective, and issue disparate decisions.

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