Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures.
"Giant molecules" made from thousands or even hundreds of thousands of smaller molecules.
Process by which smaller units--monomers--are joined together to form larger compounds--polymers.
The name for the smaller units that can be joined together to form a polymer.
Formed by joining together smaller units called monomers.
A covalently bonded compound that contains carbon; the four groups of these found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
A compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1 carbon to 2 hydrogen to 1 oxygen; used by living things for energy and structural purposes.
Single sugar; includes glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides.
A polysaccharide used by animals to store excess sugar; often referred to as "animal starch".
A polysaccharide used by plants to store excess sugar.
A tough, flexible polysaccharide that gives plants much of their strength and rigidity.
Double sugar; includes sucrose (table sugar), maltose, and lactose.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule; monosaccharides can be joined this way to produce disaccharides or polysaccharides.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water; polysaccharides can be broken into monosaccharides by this method.
A disaccharide made of glucose + fructose.
A disaccharide made of glucose + glucose.
A disaccharide made of glucose + galactose.
The number of valence electrons in a carbon atom; carbon's ability to form long chains is due to its ability to bond to other carbon atoms and to form this number of covalent bonds.
The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in a carbohydrate; the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen that is found in water--which is why "hydrate" is an appropriate part of the name "carbohydrate."
Macromolecules made mainly from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes; used for long-term storage of energy and carbon, and for building structural parts of cell membranes; fatty acids and glycerol make up the simple fats most common in our diets (p. 46).
Lipids containing a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid chains; chemical form in which most fats exist in food and in the body.
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms; tend to be oily liquids at room temperature; found in plants.
a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; tend to be solid at room temperature; found in animals.
A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids; consists of a hydrophilic polar head and two non-polar hydrophobic tails; forms cell membranes.
Many of this type of lipid serve as chemical messengers or as parts of the cell membrane; examples include cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen.
A soft yellow wax secreted by glands in the ear canal; ear wax; an example of wax--a type of lipid.
Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth, repair, and to make up enzymes; a polymer made of amino acids.
Compounds with an amino group (-NH₂) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end; the monomers that make up a protein.
A protein that is used as a catalyst (speeds up a chemical reaction).
A covalent bond between the acid group of one molecule and the amino group of another.
The sequence of amino acids in a protein chain.
The twisting or folding of the amino acids within a protein chain.
The folding of the protein chain itself; the 3 dimensional folded structure of a protein.
The specific arrangement of a protein consisting of more than one chain.
A covalent bond that links two monosaccharides together.
The chemical process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds, making the fats more solid (saturated); produces trans-fatty acids.
A change in the shape of a protein (such as an enzyme) that can be caused by changes in temperature or pH (among other things).