AP US History Chapter 9

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Thomas Dorr/The Dorr Rebellion

formed a political party in the Rhode Island state government called the "People's Party" In 1840, this new party drafted a new constitution that was widely approved by the popular vote and a new governement set up with Dorr as the governor. The original government rejected this and eventually Dorr and his followers were imprisoned as rebels and the Dorr Rebellion was ended.

Martin Van Buren/Bucktails/Albany Regency

Created the new political faction that was known as the Bucktails or the Albany Regency

DeWitt Clinton

The aristocratic Governor of New York who was the leader of the "closed elite" the Bucktails criticized.

William L. Marcy/Patronage/The Spoils System

Invented the idea of of Patronage in which jobs were given out as a result of political rewards, this idea became known as the Spoils System.

Jacksonian Democracy

A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.

John C. Calhoun/Nullification Doctrine

South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification. Supposely wrote the Nullification Doctrine.

Kitchen Cabinet

Jackson's group of unofficial advisors consisting of newspaper editors and Democratic leaders that met to discuss current issues. Jackson used the Kitchen Cabinet more than his official Cabinet.

Peggy Eaton Affair

Rumors were that Peggy O'Neale was having an affair with John Eaton. Her husband died, and she married Eaton. Eaton was appointed by Jackson as Sec. of War, making Peggy a cabinet wife. The other cabinet wives, led by Mrs. Calhoun refused to receive her. Jackson was furious, and demanded members of the cabinet to accept her into their social world. Calhoun, under pressure from his wife, refused. Falling out with Jackson. Van Buren befriended them.

Daniel Webster/Robert Y. Hayne Debate

Hayne argued against western expansion and eventually defended his point with the nullification theory. The debate became a matter of states power vs. national power. In the end, Webster was sided with President Jackson and Hayne lost.

Jefferson Birthday Dinner

During the birthday dinner of Jefferson, President Jackson made a taost, ending with the statemet,"Our Federal Union,-It must be preserved." This statement showed support for Webster's view on the debate.

Nullification Crisis

Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.

Force Bill

1833- Bill that says Congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. Is nullified by South Carolina.

The Black Hawk War

Many whites wanted the Inidians to move further West so they could have their land. During 1831-32, whites fought the Sauk-Fox Indian Tribes under the leader Black Hawk. This war is known for the harshness the whites displayed toward the Indians. Even when the N.A tried to surrender, the whites continued to fight and force them more west.

Five Civilized Tribes

some of the strong, remaining tribes of the south, consisted of; Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw.

Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia

1831. Marshall Supreme Court ruled that Cherokees could not sue because they were not a foreign nation.

Worcester vs. Georgia

the US supreme court ruled that the state of georgia was not entitled to take Cherokee lands, Jackson then sided with Marshall.

Winfield Scott

United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)

Trail of Tears

The tragic journey of the Cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.

Osceola

Seminole leader who was seized while under a flag of truce.

Seminoles

A tribe of Native Americans who inhabited Florida. Lost war and were removed to west of the Mississippi in 1840s.

Maysville Road

(1830) This was a bill that proposed building a road in Kentucky with federal funding. Jackson vetoed this because he considered it unconstitutional, as it was only in Kentucky and not a part of interstate commerce. He also was against the bill because it was considered extravagant expenditures.

Nicolas Biddle

Director of the National Bank. He granted loans to congressmen and extended the powers of the National Bank.

The Bank War

Jackson was determined to destroy the Bank of the United States because he thought it was too powerful. He felt the Bank was unconstitutional and only benefited the rich.

Soft Money vs. Hard Money Factions

Soft money opposed the Bank of the US because it did not allow state banks to issue paper money. Hard money opposed all banks that issued paper, including the US Bank

Roger B. Taney

appointed by Andrew Jackson to succeed John Marshall

Charles River bridge vs. Warren Bridge

Gov did not infringe on existing bridge company when they empowered second co. to build another bridge

King Andrew I

as a new political party was created in opposition to the president, they began referring to Andrew Jackson with this name, representing his "abusive" use of political power.

Whigs

party that favored a national bank, protective tariffs and eventually the abolition of slavery

Democrats

their philosophy war the stamp of Andrew Jackson, believing the federal government should be limited in power, except to a degree that it worked to eliminate social and economic arrangements that entrenched privilege and stifled equal opportunity.

Anti-Masonry

social order which represented elitism mostly by males and it enforced a higher democracy

Henry Clay

Viewed as just a liability because of his consistent losses when running for president

Daniel Webster

Becuase of his drinking habits, support for protective tariffs and the US Bank, he only won among the Whigs.

Panic of 1837

Ecnomic downturn caused by loose lending practices of stat banks' and overspeculation.

Specie Circular

Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in speci; Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver

Independent Treasury System

The act removed the federal government from involvement with the nation's banking system by establishing federal depositories for public funds instead of keeping the money in national, state, or private banks. This was the system the government adopted until the federal reserve act of 1910.

William Henry Harrison

Govenor of the Indiana territory, that fought against Tecumseh and the Prophet in the battle of Tippecanoe and then later became the 9th president of the US.

Log Cabin Campaign

A campaign to show the laborers and farmers that the candidate (Harrison) was a man of the people.

Penny Press

Newspapers that, because of technological innovations in printing, were able to drop their price to one cent, therefore making papers affordable to working and middle classes and enabled newspapers to become a genuine mass medium

The New York Sun

The first major daily newspaper

John Tyler

elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died (1790-1862)

The Caroline and The Creole

Both of these ships were involved with the British. The Caroline was used by anti-Bristish Canadians for supplies. The British attacked the ship, killing ans American in the process.The Creole was a ship full of slaves who took over. When the slaves went to the Bahamas, the British delcared those slaves free. Both actions infuritated Americans.

Aroostook War

The result of the conflict over The Caroline ship, which consisted of angry Americans and Canadians, mostly lumberjacks, began moving into the disputed Aroostook River region, causing a violent brawl.

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

The US recieved slightly more than half of the disputed territory and the northern boundary was moved further west towards the Rocky Mountains. This treaty occured in 1842 and improved relations with our northen neigbors.

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