Greek Lit Names: Iliad

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Iliad: Achilles, Agamemnon, Menelaus, Ajax, Calchas, Nestor, Patroclus, Chryses, Hector, Priam, Hecuba, Andromache, Briseis, Helen, Thetis and Peleus, Glaucus and Diomedes, Sarpedon, Athena, Zeus, Hera, Thersites, Lycaon, Paris

Achilles

GREEK
-son of Peleus and Thetis
-Leader of the Myrmidons
-central character whose actions determine the course of the epic
-known as the physical hero
-characterized as a merciless savage who only cares about glory
-referred to as a "lion" in the text
-the mortal immortal (half man/half god)
-articulates tension between life and death
-has two fates: a glorious young death (kleos) or a long happy life (nostos)
-his paradox: in his death he will be immortal in our thoughts
-known for his MENIS

Agamemnon

GREEK
-king of kings
-his quarrel with Achilles set the plot of the Iliad in motion

Menelaus

GREEK
-younger brother of Agamemnon
-Helen was his wife before Paris took her away, essentially he brought the Greek army to war
-prominent Greek warrior

Ajax

GREEK
-known for his brute strength
-the ideal soldier
In the embassy to Achilles
- voice of a soldier
-tries to stir Achilles with actions not words
-tells Achilles to show respect (one woman >seven woman)
-views Achilles as cruel/savage/malice

Calchus

GREEK
-prophet
1. told Greeks they had to sacrifice someone in order to set sail to Troy from Aolus
2. told Greeks how to end the plague and Apollo's wrath

Nestor

GREEK
-known as the wise counselor to the Greeks
-oldest among the warriors
-mediator of MENIS in hero

Patroclus

GREEK
-Achilles best friend
-key figure because of his decision to fight in Achilles armor to raise the moral of the whole Greek army
-gets killed by Hector
-Achilles enraged and only then does he decide to fight in the Greek Army again

Chryses

priest of Apollo who comes to the Achaean camp to ransom his daughter Chryseis, war prize of Agamemnon
-he is refused by the camp so he prays to Apollo to punish the Greek camp

Hector

TROJAN
"the family man"
-just as interested in kleos
-set apart because of his love for his own town
-POLIS-defender of his city, its laws and religious rituals
-OIKOS- defender of his family and his household
-his paradox: willing to die for Troy and his family but his death condemns them both
-example: "my heart is out there with the men fighting"

Priam

TROJAN
king of Troy
-father of Hector and Paris
-shows courage when he goes to Achilles and asks for Hector's body back

Hecuba

Hectors mother
-known as the prototype of a grieving mother who must face tragic losses in war

Andromache

TROJAN
-Hector's wife
-begs him to stay with her because she knows he is doomed

Briseis

a war prize awarded to Achilles after he sacked Lyrnessus.
-she was then taken away from Achilles,because of his attitude, by Agamemnon

Helen

GREEK ---> TROJAN
-known as the most beautiful woman in the world
-when Paris chose Aphrodite to give the golden apple to, Helen was his prize
-Helen is known as the cause of the Trojan war

Thetis

GREEK
river goddess
-Achilles mother
-begs Zeus to give his son a better judgement because everything has been taken away from him by Agamemnon

Peleus

GREEK
-Achilles father
-King of Pythia
-mortal: fear that Achilles would become to strong if Thetis had conceived him with another God, so she had to marry a mortal

Glaucus

TROJAN
--demonstrates XENIA with Diomedes in the middle of the battlefield, instead of killing each other they go their separate ways because their grandfathers had helped each other out

Diomedes

GREEK
known as one of the greatest Greek fighters
-demonstrates XENIA with Glaucas in the middle of the battlefield, instead of killing each other they go their separate ways because their grandfathers had helped each other out

Sarpedon

TROJAN

Athena

TROJAN

Zeus

IMPARTIAL
-except when influenced by special requests, but listens to both sides

Hera

TROJAN
-she is at war with her husband ( Zeus )
- jealous that she wasn't picked by Paris so she does everything she can to hinder the Trojan side
- when the old woman pray she chooses to ignore them

Thersites

GREEK
-ugliest of all the Greeks
-speaks out in the Greek camp
-gets punished for speaking out against king because he is not of noble birth so he has no right to argue
-gets his "just" response by being beat Odysseus in front of the whole camp

Lycaon

GREEK
- one of the princes of Troy
- he is sent to slavery by Achilles
- in the battlefield Achilles and Lycaon and this time instead of showing him mercy he kills him mercilessly

Paris

TROJAN
-anti hero
-not out there for kleos like everyone else
-violated all three aspects of the heroic code

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