Digestion and Absorption

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Digestion

the breakdown and absorption of food

Herbivors

eath plant matter, some are monogastric and some are ruminants

Carnivores

eat flesh, all are monogastric

Omnivores

eat it all, all are monogastric

Monogastric

single chambered stomach

Ruminants

multichambered, usually 4 chambers, mixing and fermentation

Prehension

grasping of food with lips or teeth

Mastication

mechanical breakdown of food, mostly chewing

Oral Cavity or Buccal Cavity

where digestion begins

Salivary Glands

has digestive and lubrication fuction, most domestic animals have three matching pairs

Perotid salivary glands

below the ear canal, caudal to the mandible

Mandibular salivary glands

ventral to parotid glands at caudal angle of the madible

Lingual Salivary glands

sublingual salivary glands, medial to shafts of madible just under the base of the tounge

Sypathetic nervous system

causes decreased salivation

Parasypathetic nervous system

increases saliva output

Oropharynx

the opening at the back of the throat through which food and air pass

Upper Arcade

upper teeth, in maxilla and incisive bones

Lower Arcade

lower teeth, in the madible

Incisors

most rostral, front teeth, in incisive bone used for grasping

Canines

typically longer than other teeth with pointed tips, tearing

Premolars

rostral to molars, large occlusal surfaces, used for grinding and cutting

Molars

the most caudal, used for grinding

Lingual surface

inner surface of the lower arcade, faces the tongue (lingual refers to tongue)

Palatal Surface

innter surface of the upper arcade, faces the hard palate

Labial Surface

outer surface of the rostral teeth , faces the lips

Buccal Surface

outer surface of caudal teeth, faces the cheeks

Occlusal Surface

the surface used for chewing

Lower Case, Decidous teeth

baby teeth

Upper Case

permanent teeth

Carnassial teeth

the upper 4th premoler and the lower 1st molar (site of deep infection for dogs and are difficult to extract

Esophagous

a hollow tube that moves food towards the stomach

Lumen

the open space where food travels

Mucosa

the layer nearst the lumen, epithelial tissue and loose connective tissue

Submucosa

a thicker layer beneath the mucosa, gland and denser connective tissue

Muscle Layer

thick, has longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers serves to propel material through the tract

Serosa

the outermost layer of the GI tract, thin tough connective tissue

Cardia

surrounding the opening of the esophagus, cirucular muscle maintains tone to reduce reflux of stomach material back into the esophagous

Fundus

blind pouch that expands as more food is swallowed

Body

middle of the stomach, also distensible

Cheif cells

produce pepsinogen, enzyme precursor for pepsin

Mucus Cells

produce protective mucus

I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 2/3

canine adult dental formula

I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3/2 M 1/1

feline adult dental formula

Parietal or Oxyntic cels

produce HCI

Antrum

distal part that grinds up food and regulates hydrochloric acid

Pylorus

muscular sphincter that regulates the movement of ingesta from the antrum protion of the stomach to the duodenum (small intestines) , also helps to prevent backflow from duodenum back into the stomach

Lesser curvature of the stomach

the inside curvature

Greater curvature of the stomach

the outside curvature

Rugae

long muscular folds in the stomch lining which stretch , allow stomach to expand

Erosions

breaks in the stomch mucosa

Gastric Ulcers

deep erosions in the stomch mucosa

Gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

Chyme

semifluid partially digested food

Gastric Atony

inhibition of stomch movement from sypathetic nervous input, ie from illness or surgery

Enterogastric reflex

feedback loop from intestines

Gastrocolic reflex

filling of stomach triggers signal for colon to empty, great for housetraining

Secretin

released from the duodenum in response to excess stomach acid entering the small intestines

Cholecystokinin

released in response to excess fats or proteins present in the duodenum

Gastrin

causes increased HCL production & inhibits muscle activity of the fundus, greater relaxation and filling of the stomach

Pepsiongen/Pepsin

from chief cells, is the precurser for the proteolytic enzyme

Mucins

produced by goblet cells, main constituents of mucus coating which helps protect stomach lining

Bicarbonate Ion

secreted onto the surface of the stomach to make the mucus coat more alkaline and thereby protect stomach lining from the HCL

Hydrochloric Acid

produced by the parietal cells, starts breaking down food and converts pepsinogen to pepsin

Gastrin

stretching of the body or antrum by food stimulates release

Acetylcholine

from the parasympathetic nervous system , binds to recpetor on the parietal cell producing more HCL also causes more gastrin release

Duodenum

small intestine attached to the stomach

Jejunum

the longest portion of the smalls intestine

Ileum

connects to the large intestine at the ileocecal sphincter(junction of ileum and colan)

Cecum

blind pouch the sphincter regulates movement of material from teh small intestine to the colon

Mucosal layer

built for absorption, large surface area augmented by villi and microvilli

Villi

project off of the wall of the small intestine, finger like projections of the mucosa, each villus has thousands of microvilli

Microvillia (brush boarder)

cells in this have many digestive enzymes and carrier molecules embedded in their cell membranes for the digestion and absorption or nutrients, vitimins and minerals

Crypt

invagination around each villus, old cells are shed at the tip of the villus. The cells in this produce new cells to constantly replace old cells that are shed

Peristalsis

coordinated contractions of longitudinal and circular muscle which move ingests or chyme through the intestine

Segmental Contractions

Adequately mix chyme and expose fully to intestinal lining, slow movement, allow for water absorption. A lack of this movement causes diarrhea

Ileusa

a lack of peristalsis resulting in decreasesd movment of ingesta through the intestine, can be caused by disease and stress

Polysaccharides

starch, glycogen, sugars are complex carbohydrates

Amylase

and enzyme released by the pancreas, breaks down carbohydrates

Proteases

breaks down proteins into amino acids or dipeptides before they can be absorbed

5 basic proteases

Etypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase

Emulsification or Micelle Formation

fats broken into smaller pieces, contractions of the stomach start the process

Triglycerides (fats)

need lipase for pancreas, fat digesting enzymes that penetrate the bile acid coating and break triglycerides down into glycerol, fatty acids, and monoglycerides

Liver

makes bile

Gall Bladder

stores bile

Bile Duct

carries bile from the gall bladder to the duodenum

Bile Acids

prevent fat from re-clumping, are secreated into the duodenum from the liver, these help to prevent the fat droplets from recombining into larger globules again. These have a hydrophobic end to hold onto fats, and a hydrophilic end to hold onto water, making fats more soluble

Lipases

fat digesting enzymes that penetrate the bile acid coating and break triglycerides down into glycerol, fatty acids, and monoglycerides

Fatty acids, Glycerol, and Monoclycerides

micelles which can be absorbed through the brush border

Large Intestine

water nad some electrolyte absorption, stores feces

Colon

3 portions which then connects to the rectum

Rectum

terminal colon, stretching of the rectum stimulates defecation

Internal Sphincter

smooth muscle and under autonomic control

External Sphincter

skeletal muscle and under voluntary control

Liver

largest organ inside the body, considered an accessory organ to digestion, filtration and detoxification

Glycogenesis

the formation of glycogen from glucose

Glycogenolysis

the breakdown of glycogen back into glucose

Gluconeogenesis

the formation of glucose from amino acids

Pacreas

located in the curve of the duodenum

Exocrine Function

enzymes through ducts, fuction involves amylase, lipase, and proteases, also release bicarbonate into the duodenum to help maintain pH

Endocrine Function

hormoses, ductless, involves maintence of blood glucose levels through the use of insulin and glucagon

Insulin

secreted by beta cells in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas. Acts to move glucose from the blood into the cells.

Glucagon

pancreatic hormone produced in the alpha cells has the opposite effect, mobilzes glucose from the liver to preven hypoglycemia

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