Comer Ch.7-8

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When a physical ailment has no apparent medical cause, doctors may suspect a _________ disorder

somatoform

A person who intentionally produces or fakes physical symptoms simply out of a wish to be a patient might be diagnosed with a

factitious disorder

Psychodynamic theorists say that ___________ and ____________ are the two mechanisms at work in hysterical somatoform disorders

primary gain; secondary gain

Psychodynamic theorists believe that dissociative disorders are caused by the defense mechanism of:

repression

Symptoms of multiple personality disorder usually begin after episodes of:

abuse

Melinda is a 23-year old woman who complains of chronic abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea, and lack of sexual desire, for which there was no organic cause. She would most likely be diagnosed with:

somatization disorder

_________ is not a hysterical somatoform disorder

Hypochondriasis

People who suffer from ____________ unrealistically interpret bodily symptoms as signs of a serious illness

hypochondriasis

People with ___________ feel as though they have become separated from their body and are observing themselves from outside

depersonalization disorder

Derek looked at his car, knew it was his, but felt like he had never seen it before. Derek may have been experiencing

jamais vu

Behaviorists believe that the fears found in hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder have been acquired through

classical conditioning or modeling

Some argue that many cases of dissociative identity disorder are __________; that is, the symptoms are unintentionally produced by the therapist treating the patient.

latrogenic

Behavioral theorists propose that the physical symptoms of hysterical disorders bring _________ to sufferers

rewards

People who experience ____________ become deeply concerned about some imagined or minor defect in their appearance

dysmorphophobia

Some theorists conclude that dissociative disorders may be a form of __________, in which people hypnotize themselves to try to forget unpleasant events

self-hypnosis

Which disorder is considered by law enforcement to be a form of child abuse?

Munchausen syndrome by proxy

People who suffer from depersonalization disorder often experience a sensation known as ___________, or the feeling that their mind seems to be floating a few feet above them.

doubling

The ultimate goal of treatment for people with multiple personality disorder is:

integration of subpersonalities

Therapists who take a ___________ approach to somatoform disorders try to force patients out of the sick role by straightforwardly telling them that their symptoms are without medical basis.

confrontational

Freud centered his explanation of hysterical disorders on the needs and conflicts experience by ________ in the _________ stage

girls; phallic

Which disorder is marked by a parent making up or producing physical illnesses in their children?

Munchausen syndrome by proxy

Individuals with preoccupation somatoform disorders typically receive the kinds of treatment that are applied to ___________ or ___________ disorders

generalized anxiety ; obsessive-compulsive

Dissociative disorders are primarily a major disruption of ____________

memory

The final merging of two or more subpersonalities in a patient with dissociative identity disorder is known as:

fusion

__________ are the quiet observers in someone with multiple personality disorder

Co-conscious subpersonalities

People with ___________ suddenly travel to an entirely different location and cannot recall the details of their past lives

dissociative fugue

Some studies have revealed that many patients with body dysmorphic disorder improve considerably when treated with ___________ drugs

antidepressant

Todays leading explanations for hysterical somatoform disorders come from the:

psychodynamic, behavioral, and cognitive models.

People who suffer from dissociative fugue most often lose their ___________ memories, but retain their __________ memories.

episodic; semantic

An extreme and chronic form of factitious disorder is

Munchausen syndrome.

Sodium amobarbital and sodium pentobarbital are often referred to as:

truth serums.

In case of __________ amnesia, a patient loses all memory of events that took place within a limited period of time, almost always beginning with some disturbing occurrence.

localized

Some ___________ theorists propose that hysterical disorders are forms of communication, providing a means for people to express emotions that would otherwise be difficult to convey.

cognitive

___________ is credited with developing the learned helplessness theory of depression

Martin Seligman

A less disabling form of unipolar depression is known as:

dysthymic disorder

A pattern of depression found among young children caused by separation from their mothers is known as:

anaclitic depression.

According to the DSM-IV, a major depressive episode is a period marked by at least _____ symptoms of depression and lasting for ____ weeks or more

five; two

Low ________ activity accompanied by high _________ activity may lead to mania.

serotonin; norepinephrine

cognitive triad

individuals repeatedly interpret there (1)experiences, (2) themselves, and (3) their futures in negative ways that lead them to feel depressed

The category of major depressive disorder in which the person experiences excessive activity or immobility is:

catatonic

The form of bipolar disorder characterized by episodes of hyponamia alternating with major depressive episodes is:

bipolar II disorder

The hormone that may indirectly play a role in depression is:

melatonin

Which theorist is credited with formulating the concept of the cognitive triad?

Aaron Beck

Which group of Americans has the highest rate of unipolar depression?

middle-aged White Americans

Women are _____ as likely as men to experience episodes of severe unipolar depression.

two times

Learned helplessness

is the perception that one has no control over the reinforcements in their lives

___________________ studies observe the pattern of distribution of disorders among family members in order to identify possible inheritance patterns of disorders.

Family pedigree

One of the most effective treatments for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is:

light therapy

Patients who suffer from double depression have which of the following patterns of symptoms?

They suffer from dysthymic disorder, and this leads to a diagnosis of major depressive disorder.

According to Peter Lewinsohn, which type of rewards are particularly important in the downward spiral of depression?

social rewards

Aaron Beck believes that _________________ contribute(s) to the development of depression.

maladaptive attitudes

The ________ theory holds that men and women are equally prone to depression but that clinicians fail to detect depression in men

artifact

Research has found that the sleep cycles of depressed people are disrupted in all but which of the following ways?

Depressed individuals spend almost no time in REM

Unlike unipolar depression, bipolar disorders appear to be best explained by focusing largely on:

biological factors

The most common pattern of mood disorder is:

unipolar depression

If a person experiences ______ or more episodes of shifting between mania and depression within a one-year period, their disorder would be classified as rapid cycling.

4

Depressed people sometimes experience a steady train of unpleasant thoughts that suggest to them that they are inadequate and that their situation is helpless. These are known as:

automatic thoughts.

reud proposed the concept of _______, in which other kinds of events are equated with loss of a loved one.

symbolic loss

Some theorists believe that improper transport of ________ may cause neurons to fire too easily, resulting in mania.

sodium ions

Research has found a link between ____________ and sharpened and creative thinking and greater productivity.

hypomania

cyclothymic disorder

When a person experiences numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and mild depressive symptoms,

Hysterical Somatoform Disorder

people suffer actual changes in their physical functioning

Conversion disorder

type of hysterical disorder: a psychosocial conflict or need converted into dramatic physical symptoms that affect voluntary motor or sensory functioning

Somatization Disorder

have many long-lasting physical aliments that have little or no organic basis

Pain Disorder Associated with Psychological Factors

Severity or continuation of pain, often develops after an accident or during an illness that has cause actual pain

Factitious Disorder

patient may fake or produce physical symptoms simply out of a wish to be a patient

Preoccupation Somatoform Disorder

people misinterpret and overreact to bodily symptoms

Hypochondrias

type of preoccupation Somatoform disorder where people unrealistically interpret bodily symptoms as a signs of serious illness

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

aka dysmorphphobia, people become deeply concerned with some imagined or minor defect in their appearance

Dissociative Disoerder

when changes in memory, lack a clear physical cause. A part of the person's memory seems to be dissociative (separated) from the rest

Dissociative Amnesia

is an inability to recall important personal events and information

Dissociative Fugue

forgets past but also travels to new location and may assume new identity

Dissociative Identity Disorder

aka multiple personality disorder, may have two or more separate identities that may not be aware of each others thoughts, feelings and behaviors

Depersonalization

people feel they have become detached from their own mental processes or body and are observing themselves from the outside (floating)

Circumscribed amnesia

type of dissociative disorder; most common type, loses all memory of events within a limited amount of time

Selective amnesia

2nd most common, remember some events but not all

Continuous Amnesia

forgetting continues into the present

Primary or Host

at any given time, one of the sub personalities takes center stage and dominates

Switching

transition from one sub personality to another

Mutually amnesic relationship

sub personalities have no awareness of each other

Mutually Cognizant patterns

each sub personality is well aware of the rest

One-way amnesic relationships

most common, some sub personalities are aware of others, but awareness isn't mutual

Co-concious relationships

those who are aware, "quiet observers", watch actions and thoughts

State-Dependent Learning

if people can learn something when they're in a particular situation or state of mind, they are likely to remember it best when they are again in that same condition

Hypnotized

people enter a sleep like state in which they become very suggestible. Can help people remember events that occurred and were forgotten

Self-hypnosis

people hypnotize themselves and forget unpleasant events

Derealization

feeling that the external world is unreal and strange

Depression

low, sad state which life seems dark and its challenges are overwhelming

Mania

opposite of depression, state of breathless euphoria, frenzied energy, in which people may have exaggerated belief that the world is theirs for the taking

Bipolar disorder

periods of mania that alternate with periods of depression

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