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1) Operational management is responsible for directing the day-to-day operations of the business and therefore needs transaction-level information.

Answer: TRUE

2) You would use an MIS to help decide whether to introduce a new product line.

Answer: FALSE

3) Online collaboration tools eliminate the need for global firms to have synchronous collaboration.

Answer: TRUE

4) Transaction processing systems are most commonly used by the senior management level of an organization.

Answer: FALSE

5) A transaction processing system is a computerized system that performs and records the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct business.

Answer: TRUE

6) A hotel reservation system is a typical example of a management information system.

Answer: FALSE

7) Management information systems typically support nonroutine decision making.

Answer: FALSE

8) Enrolling employees in benefits plans is a business process handled by the finance and accounting function.

Answer: FALSE

9) Functional systems that support business processes within a single functional group, such as human resources, are being phased out in favor of cross-functional systems.

Answer: TRUE

10) Managers need TPSs to monitor the status of internal operations and the firm's relations with the external environment.

Answer: TRUE

11) Most MISs use sophisticated mathematical models or statistical techniques.

Answer: FALSE

12) Decision-support systems help managers make decisions that are unique, rapidly changing, and not easily specified in advance.

Answer: TRUE

13) Decision-support systems use internal information as well as information from external sources.

Answer: TRUE

14) ESSs are designed to serve the middle management of the organization.

Answer: FALSE

15) ESSs are designed to incorporate data about external events, but they also draw summarized information from internal MIS and DSS.

Answer: TRUE

16) A Skype conference call using VOIP and webcams is an example of a remote, synchronous collaboration tool.

Answer: TRUE

17) ESSs are designed primarily to solve specific problems.

Answer: FALSE

18) Information supplied by an enterprise system is structured around cross-functional business processes.

Answer: TRUE

19) Enterprise systems often include transactions with customers and vendors.

Answer: TRUE

20) Supply chain management systems are more externally oriented than enterprise systems.

Answer: TRUE

1) Companies can use configuration tables provided by the enterprise software to tailor a particular aspect of the system to the way it does business.

Answer: TRUE

2) Enterprise systems are typically built around one or two major business workflows.

Answer: FALSE

3) Enterprise systems are designed primarily to allow communication between an organization and outside partners and suppliers.

Answer: FALSE

4) The upstream portion of the supply chain consists of the organizations and processes for distributing and delivering products to the final customers.

Answer: FALSE

5) Supply chain inefficiencies can waste as much as 25 percent of a company's operating costs.

Answer: TRUE

6) Safety stock acts as an inexpensive buffer for the lack of flexibility in the supply chain.

Answer: FALSE

7) The bullwhip effect is the distortion of information about the demand for a product as it passes from one entity to the next across the supply chain.

Answer: TRUE

8) Supply chain execution systems enable the firm to generate demand forecasts for a product and to develop sourcing and manufacturing plans for that product.

Answer: FALSE

9) To minimize the expense of implementing an enterprise system, businesses can opt to curtail the customization of an enterprise package and instead change business processes to match the software.

Answer: TRUE

10) Implementing an enterprise application typically requires organizational change as well as adjustments to existing business processes.

Answer: TRUE

11) In a push-based model of SCM systems, actual customer orders or purchases trigger events in the supply chain.

Answer: FALSE

13) Wal-mart's strategy of continuous replenishment of inventory based on actual customer purchases is an example a pull-based SCM model.

Answer: TRUE

14) Total supply chain costs represent the majority of operating expenses for many businesses and in some industries approach 75 percent of the total operating budget.

Answer: TRUE

15) You would expect to find PRM and ERM modules in the most comprehensive CRM software packages.

Answer: TRUE

16) Major CRM application software vendors include Siebel Systems, PeopleSoft, SAP, and Salesforce.com.

Answer: TRUE

17) Cross-selling markets complementary products to customers.

Answer: TRUE

18) CRM software can help organizations identify high-value customers for preferential treatments.

Answer: TRUE

19) Analytical CRM uses a customer data warehouse and tools to analyze customer data collected from the firm's customer touch points and from other sources.

Answer: TRUE

20) Enterprise systems require fundamental changes in the way the business operates.

Answer: TRUE

12) In a pull-based model of SCM systems, production master schedules are based on forecasts of demand for products.

Answer: FALSE

21) An example of a collaboration tool that supports colocated, asynchronous collaboration is
A) a team room.
B) e-mail.
C) a MUD.
D) a wall display.

;Answer: A

22) Identifying customers is a responsibility of the ________ function.
A) finance and accounting
B) human resources
C) manufacturing and production
D) sales and marketing

;Answer: D

23) Producing bills of materials is a business process within the ________ function.
A) finance and accounting
B) human resources
C) manufacturing and production
D) sales and marketing

;Answer: C

24) Which of the following is an example of a cross-functional business process?
A) identifying customers
B) creating a new product
C) assembling a product
D) paying creditors

;Answer: B

25) Which type of system would you use to change a production schedule if a key supplier was late in delivering goods?
A) ESS
B) TPS
C) MIS
D) DSS

;Answer: B

26) To monitor the status of internal operations and the firm's relations with the external environment, managers need ________ systems.
A) decision-support
B) knowledge
C) transaction processing
D) management information

;Answer: C

27) Which systems are typically a major source of data for other systems?
A) transaction processing systems
B) management information systems
C) executive support systems
D) decision-support systems

Answer: A

28) Which type of system would you use to determine the five suppliers with the worst record in delivering goods on time?
A) ESS
B) TPS
C) MIS
D) DSS

Answer: C

29) A relocation control system that reports summaries on the total moving, house-hunting, and home financing costs for employees in all company divisions would fall into the category of
A) knowledge management systems.
B) transaction processing systems.
C) executive support systems.
D) management information systems.

Answer: D

30) The term "management information systems" designates a specific category of information systems serving
A) integrated data processing throughout the firm.
B) transaction process reporting.
C) employees with online access to historical records.
D) middle management functions.

Answer: D

31) Non-typical business problems with causes and effects that are rapidly changing are typically handled by which type of information system ?
A) MIS
B) TPS
C) ESS
D) DSS

Answer: D

32) ________ systems are especially suited to situations in which the procedure for arriving at a solution may not be fully defined in advance.
A) Management information
B) Transaction processing
C) Decision-support
D) Knowledge management

Answer: C

33) Which type of system would you use to forecast the return on investment if you used new suppliers with better delivery track records?
A) ESS
B) TPS
C) MIS
D) DSS

Answer: D

34) Which of the following is not one of the four main classifications for collaboration tools identified by the space/time matrix?
A) synchronous/colocated
B) same time/remote
C) different time/remote
D) remote/colocated

Answer: D

35) All of the following statements regarding Lotus Notes are true except for
A) It began as an e-mail and messaging client.
B) It is the most widely used collaboration tool at Fortune 1000 companies.
C) Firmwide installations at a large company require specialized servers and may cost millions of dollars per year.
D) It provides tools for e-mail, calendars, help desk, CRM, blogs, and wikis.

Answer: A

36) ESS are specifically designed to serve which level of the organization?
A) operational
B) end-user
C) middle management
D) senior management

Answer: D

37) Executive support systems are information systems that support the
A) long-range planning activities of senior management.
B) knowledge and data workers in an organization.
C) decision-making and administrative activities of middle managers.
D) day-to-day processes of production.

Answer: A

38) Which systems often deliver information to senior executives through a portal, which uses a Web interface to present integrated personalized business content?
A) transaction processing systems
B) executive support systems
C) management information systems
D) decision-support systems

Answer: B

39) Which type of system would you use to determine what trends in your supplier's industry will affect your firm the most in five years?
A) ESS
B) TPS
C) MIS
D) DSS

Answer: A

40) What is the most important function of an enterprise application?
A) increasing speed of communicating
B) enabling business functions and departments to share information
C) enabling a company to work collaboratively with customers and suppliers
D) enabling cost-effective e-business processes

Answer: B

41) ________ are designed to support organization-wide process coordination and integration.
A) Decision-support systems
B) Management information systems
C) CRM systems
D) Enterprise applications

Answer: D

42) A(n) ________ system collects data from various key business processes and stores the data in a single, comprehensive data repository, usable by other parts of the business.
A) transaction
B) enterprise
C) automatic reporting
D) management information

Answer: B

43) You manage the IT department at a small startup Internet advertiser. You need to set up an inexpensive system that allows customers to see real-time statistics such as views and click-throughs about their current banner ads. Which type of system will most efficiently provide a solution?
A) CRM
B) enterprise system
C) extranet
D) intranet

Answer: C

44) The point-of-sale Pulse system used by Domino's to maintain consistent and efficient management functions in its restaurants is best categorized as which type of system?
A) TPS
B) DSS
C) CRM
D) more than one of the above

Answer: D

45) In Domino's upgraded Pulse Evolution system, it incorporated a Pizza Tracker functionality that shows the progression of individual pizza orders. This is an example of using information systems to achieve which business objective?
A) customer and supplier intimacy
B) survival
C) improved decision making
D) operational excellence

Answer: A

46) The four major enterprise applications are
A) SCMs, CRMs, DSSs, and KMSs.
B) SCMs, CRMs, ESSs, and KMSs.
C) enterprise systems, SCMs, DSSs, and CRMs.
D) enterprise systems, SCMs, CRMs, and KMSs.

Answer: D

47) Enterprise systems are also known as ________ systems.
A) resource planning
B) enterprise resource planning
C) enterprise support
D) management information

Answer: B

48) Enabling management to make better decisions regarding organizing and scheduling sourcing, production, and distribution is a central feature of
A) SCMs
B) TPSs
C) KMSs
D) ERPs

Answer: A

49) ________ systems integrate supplier, manufacturer, distributor, and customer logistics processes.
A) Collaborative distribution
B) Supply-chain management
C) Reverse logistics
D) Enterprise planning

Answer: B

50) ________ systems are designed to help firms manage their relationships with their customers.
A) CRM
B) MIS
C) CLE
D) CLU

Answer: A

51) Which types of systems consolidate the relevant knowledge and experience in the firm to make it available to improve business processes and management decision making?
A) TPS
B) extranets
C) KMS
D) CRM

Answer: C

52) You are planning the launch of your new company, an application service provider that provides an online timesheet and project tracking application. To best communicate with and manage your relationship with your users, you would want to implement a(n)
A) extranet.
B) intranet.
C) KMS.
D) CMS.

Answer: D

53) All of the following are direct business benefits of collaboration, except for
A) improved quality.
B) improved financial performance.
C) improved customer service.
D) improved compliance with government regulations.

Answer: D

54) Which of the following types of system helps expedite the flow of information between the firm and its suppliers and customers?
A) intranet
B) extranet
C) KMS
D) TPS

Answer: B

55) Which of the following occupations would NOT be categorized as an "interaction" job?
A) sales representative
B) business manager
C) engineer
D) operations manager

Answer: C

57) Which of the following decisions requires knowledge based on collaboration and interaction?
A) How long will it take to manufacture this product?
B) Should we work with with outside vendors on new products and services?
C) In which geographical locations are our products garnering the most sales?
D) Which product design is the most efficient for the user in terms of energy use?

Answer: B

58) Buying or selling goods over the Internet is called
A) e-commerce.
B) e-business.
C) an intranet.
D) an extranet.

Answer: A

59) The use of digital technology and the Internet to execute the major business processes in the enterprise is called
A) e-commerce.
B) e-business.
C) enterprise applications.
D) MIS.

Answer: B

60) The principal liaison between the information systems groups and the rest of the organization is a(n)
A) programmer.
B) information systems manager.
C) systems analyst.
D) CTO.

Answer: C

61) A ________ is a senior manager who oversees the use of IT in the firm.
A) CEO
B) CFO
C) CIO
D) CTO

Answer: C

62) The ________ helps design programs and systems to find new sources of knowledge or to make better use of existing knowledge in organizational and management processes.
A) CTO
B) CSO
C) CKO
D) CPO

Answer: C

63) The CPO is responsible for
A) ensuring that the company complies with existing data privacy laws.
B) making better use of existing knowledge in organizational and management processes.
C) enforcing the firm's information security policy.
D) overseeing the use of information technology in the firm.

Answer: A

64) Which of the following types of collaboration tools allows you to communicate with avatars using text messaging?
A) virtual worlds
B) screen sharing
C) collaborative writing
D) large audience Webinars

Answer: A

65) Which of the following roles falls into the duties of an information systems manager?
A) writing software instructions for computers
B) acting as liaison between the information systems group and the rest of the organization
C) translating business problems into information requirements
D) managing data entry staff

Answer: D

66) Which of the following statements about collaboration is not true?
A) In business, a collaboration can last as little as a few minutes.
B) Business collaboration relies on the formation of teams that are assigned a specific task or goal.
C) Successful collaboration can be achieved through technology regardless of the organization's culture or structure.
D) One business benefit of collaboration is improved innovation.

Answer: C

67) Which of the following is not one of the fifteen categories of collaborative software tools?
A) file sharing
B) event scheduling
C) white boarding
D) extranets

Answer: D

68) You work for a highly successful advertiser that is just about to expand nationally. Of utmost importance will be finding a way to store and disseminate their clients' continually updated branding guides, which include multiple image files and text documents, to all of the firm's branches. What system will best serve these needs?
A) an intranet with KMS capabilities
B) an extranet with KMS capabilities
C) a TPS with KMS capabilities
D) a CRM

Answer: B

69) You have been hired by a worldwide non-profit agency to implement a system to handle their donations. The system must be able to handle and record telephone, sms, and Internet donations, provide up-to-the-minute reports, and create highly customizable mailing lists. In addition, event fundraisers need to be able to quickly access a donor's information and history. Which of the following systems will best meet these needs?
A) TPS
B) TPS with DSS capabilities
C) TPS with MIS capabilities
D) TPS with ESS capabilities

Answer: C

70) You have been hired by Inspiration Inc. to help improve their profit margin. Inspiration Inc. is a business communications consultancy that services many clients in different industries throughout the United States. The end products of the company are customized recommendations for the best use of a client's existing resources for improving internal communications, typically delivered via documentation in different media. The company has approximately 100 consultants, all of whom are located in their central headquarters in Chicago. What system do you recommend to improve the company's business processes and increase their profit margin?
A) extranet, to enable quick collaboration over the Internet , minimize the time spent communicating with the client, and minimize the amount of paperwork needed
B) CRM, to maintain easily accessible customer records to minimize the time spent looking for client data
C) KMS, for minimizing redundant work on similar clients
D) marketing system, for improving sales levels

Answer: A

1) Internet advertising is growing at approximately 10 percent a year.

;Answer: TRUE

2) Developing a new product, fulfilling an order, and hiring a new employee are examples of business processes.

;;Answer: TRUE

3) A fully digital firm produces only digital goods or services.

;Answer: FALSE

4) A business model describes how a company produces, delivers, and sells a product or service to create wealth.

;Answer: TRUE

5) Information technology (IT) consists of all the hardware that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives, whereas information systems consist of all the software and business processes needed.

;Answer: FALSE

6) Computers are only part of an information system.

;Answer: TRUE

8) The dimensions of information systems are management, organizations, and information technology.

;Answer: TRUE

9) Knowledge workers assist with paperwork at all levels of the firm.

;Answer: FALSE

10) There are four major business functions: Sales and marketing; manufacturing and production; finance and accounting; and information technology.

;Answer: FALSE

11) In order to understand how a specific business firm uses information systems, you need to know something about the hierarchy and culture of the company.

;Answer: TRUE

12) Business processes are logically related tasks for accomplishing tasks that have been formally encoded by an organization.

;Answer: FALSE

14) Intranets allow firms to work easily with third-party suppliers and vendors.

;Answer: FALSE

15) An IT infrastructure provides the platform on which the firm can build its information systems.

;Answer: TRUE

16) UPS's use of Web-based tools that allow customers to embed UPS functions such as tracking and cost calculations into their own Web sites was an information systems solution used to achieve customer intimacy.

;Answer: TRUE

17) Studies have consistently shown that firms who invest greater amounts in information technology receive greater benefits than firms that invest less.

;Answer: FALSE

20) The behavioral approach to information systems leaves aside technical solutions to instead analyze the psychological, social, and economic impacts of systems.

;Answer: TRUE

21) The six important business objectives of information technology are new products, services, and business models; customer and supplier intimacy; survival; competitive advantage; operational excellence; and
A) improved flexibility.
B) improved decision making.
C) improved business practices.
D) improved efficiency.

;Answer: B

22) Dell Computer's use of information systems to improve efficiency and implement "mass customization" techniques to maintain consistent profitability and an industry lead illustrates which business objective?
A) improved flexibility
B) improved business practices
C) competitive advantage
D) survival

;Answer: C

24) Which of the following choices may lead to competitive advantage: (1) new products, services, and business models; (2) charging less for superior products; (3) responding to customers in real time?
A) 1 only
B) 1 and 2
C) 2 and 3
D) 1, 2, and 3

;Answer: D

25) Verizon's implementation of a Web-based digital dashboard to provide managers with real-time information such as customer complaints is an example of
A) improved flexibility.
B) improved decision making.
C) improved efficiency.
D) customer and supplier intimacy.

;Answer: B

26) The move of retail banking to use ATMs after Citibank unveiled its first ATMs illustrates the use of information systems to achieve which business objective?
A) improved efficiency
B) customer and supplier intimacy
C) survival
D) competitive advantage

;Answer: C

28) The three activities in an information system that produce the information organizations use to control operations are
A) information retrieval, research, and analysis.
B) input, output, and feedback.
C) input, processing, and output.
D) data analysis, processing, and feedback.

;Answer: C

30) The average number of tickets sold daily online is an example of
A) input.
B) raw data.
C) meaningful information.
D) feedback.

;Answer: C

32) Converting raw data into a more meaningful form is called
A) capturing.
B) processing.
C) organizing.
D) feedback.

;Answer: B

33) An example of raw data from a national chain of automobile stores would be
A) an average of 13 Toyotas are sold daily in Kentucky.
B) 30 percent increase in Toyota RAV 4 sales during September in Kentucky.
C) 1 Toyota RAV4 sold March 3, 2008 in Louisville, Kentucky.
D) all of the above.

;Answer: C

34) The field that deals with behavioral issues as well as technical issues surrounding the development, use, and impact of information systems used by managers and employees in the firm is called
A) information systems literacy.
B) information systems architecture.
C) management information systems.
D) information technology infrastructure.

;Answer: C

36) Which of the following business objectives best describes the strategy behind the use of technology in the new Yankee Stadium?
A) competitive advantage
B) improved decision making
C) new products and services
D) survival

;Answer: C

37) The fundamental set of assumptions, values, and ways of doing things that has been accepted by most of a company's members is called its
A) culture.
B) environment.
C) atmosphere.
D) values.

;Answer: A

38) Thomas Friedman's declaration that the world was now "flat" meant that
A) the Internet has reduced the economic advantages of developed countries.
B) globalization is starting to offer less advantage to large corporations.
C) the global economy is increasingly commanded by fewer and larger corporations.
D) global capitalism is homogenizing culture and business practices throughout the world.

;Answer: A

40) The hardware and software used to transfer data in an organization is called
A) data management technology.
B) networking and data management technology.
C) data and telecommunications technology.
D) networking and telecommunications technology.

;Answer: D

41) Networking and telecommunications technologies, along with computer hardware, software, data management technology, and the people required to run and manage them, constitute an organization's
A) data management environment.
B) networked environment.
C) IT infrastructure.
D) information system.

;Answer: C

42) An example of a business using information systems to create new products and services is
A) Wal-Mart's RetailLink system.
B) the Mandarin Oriental hotel's customer-preference tracking system.
C) Verizon's Web-based digital dashboard.
D) Apple Inc.'s iPod.

;Answer: D

44) An example of a business using information systems for customer and supplier intimacy is
A) Wal-Mart's RetailLink system.
B) the Mandarin Oriental hotel's customer-preference tracking system.
C) Verizon's Web-based digital dashboard.
D) Apple Inc.'s iPod.

;Answer: B

45) Maintaining the organization's financial records is a central purpose of which main business function?
A) manufacturing and accounting
B) finance and accounting
C) sales and manufacturing
D) finance and sales

;Answer: B

46) Based on the examples in the chapter, if you were asked to formulate a plan for a regional drive-in restaurant chain's efforts to use information technology to develop a loyal customer base, what would be the best use of information technology from the list below?
A) Use IT to increase supplier loyalty.
B) Use IT to increase operational efficiency.
C) Use IT to create new products and business models.
D) Use IT to help survive government reporting requirements.
E) Use IT to achieve customer intimacy.

;Answer: E

48) The temp agency that you own is having serious difficulties placing temps because few of them are familiar with Internet research. Investing in training software to enhance your workers' skills is an example of using technology to achieve which business objective?
A) customer and supplier intimacy
B) survival
C) competitive advantage
D) improved decision-making

;Answer: B

49) In a business hierarchy, the level that is responsible for monitoring the daily activities of the business is
A) middle management.
B) service workers.
C) production management.
D) operational management.

;Answer: D

50) Which of the following are environmental actors that interact with an organization and its information systems?
A) customers
B) suppliers
C) regulatory agencies
D) all of the above

;Answer: D

52) A corporation that funds a political action committee, which in turn promotes and funds a political candidate who agrees with the values of that corporation, could be seen as investing in which main category of complementary assets?
A) managerial
B) governmental
C) social
D) organizational

;Answer: C

53) Apple Computer dominates the online legal music sales industry primarily because of a failure of recording label companies to
A) invest in technology.
B) adopt a new business model.
C) invest in complementary assets.
D) modernize their information value chain.

;Answer: B

54) An example of an organizational complementary asset is
A) using the appropriate business model.
B) a collaborative work environment.
C) laws and regulations.
D) all of the above.

;Answer: A

56) Disciplines that contribute to the technical approach to information systems are
A) computer science, engineering, and networking.
B) operations research, management science, and computer science.
C) engineering, utilization management, and computer science.
D) management science, computer science, and engineering.

;Answer: B

57) The discipline that focuses on mathematical techniques for optimizing parameters of organizations, such as transportation and inventory control, is
A) management science.
B) MIS.
C) operations research.
D) utilization management.

;Answer: C

58) Sociologists study information systems with an eye to understanding
A) how systems affect individuals, groups, and organizations.
B) how human decision makers perceive and use formal information.
C) how new information systems change the control and cost structures within the firm.
D) the production of digital goods.

;Answer: A

60) The costs for firms operating on a global scale have been drastically reduced by
A) networking technology.
B) investments in organizational complementary assets.
C) the Internet.
D) the rise of digital content.

;Answer: C

61) Which of the following are key corporate assets?
A) intellectual property, core competencies, and financial and human assets
B) production technologies and business processes for sales, marketing, and finance
C) knowledge and the firm's tangible assets, such as goods or services
D) time and knowledge

;Answer: A

62) Overproduction or underproduction of goods and services, misallocation of resources, and poor response times are the results of a firm's having
A) poor relationships with suppliers.
B) poor relationships with customers.
C) inadequate information.
D) a surplus of information.

;Answer: C

64) Which of the following would NOT be used as an input for an information system?
A) digital dashboard
B) handheld computer
C) bar-code scanner
D) cell phone

;Answer: A

65) Which field of study focuses on both a behavioral and technical understanding of information systems?
A) sociology
B) operations research
C) economics
D) management information systems

;Answer: D

66) The three principal levels within a business organization hierarchy are
A) senior management, operational management, and service workers.
B) senior management, middle management, and operational management.
C) senior management, operational management, and information systems.
D) senior management, middle management, and service workers.

;Answer: B

68) Which main business function is responsible for maintaining employee records?
A) sales and marketing
B) human resources
C) finance and accounting
D) manufacturing and production

;Answer: B

69) Which of the following constitutes an organizational element in the UPS tracking system described in the chapter?
A) the specification of procedures for identifying packages with sender and recipient information
B) monitoring service levels
C) promoting the company strategy of low-cost, superior service
D) the use of handheld computers and networks for managing package delivery

;Answer: A

56) E-government refers to the application of ________ to digitally enable government and public sector agencies' relationships with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.
A) the Internet and networking technologies
B) e-commerce
C) e-business
D) any computerized technology

;Answer: A

51) From a business perspective, raw data is transformed systematically during various stages, transforming it into valuable information, in a process called
A) the information value chain.
B) the IT value chain.
C) information processing.
D) feedback.

;;Answer: A

67) Engineers, scientists, or architects, who design new products or services for a firm, belong to which level of a business hierarchy?
A) middle management
B) production workers
C) knowledge workers
D) data workers

;;Answer: C

63) A firm that must invest in new information systems capabilities in order to comply with federal legislation can be said to be investing to achieve which business objective?
A) customer intimacy
B) operational excellence
C) survival
D) improved reporting

;;Answer: C

59) Psychologists study information systems with an eye to understanding
A) how systems affect individuals, groups, and organizations.
B) how human decision makers perceive and use formal information.
C) how new information systems change the control and cost structures within the firm.
D) the production of digital goods.

;;Answer: B

55) An example of a social complementary asset is
A) technology and service firms in adjacent markets.
B) training programs.
C) distributed decision-making rights.
D) all of the above.

;;Answer: A

7) Information systems literacy describes the behavioral approach to information systems, whereas computer literacy describes the technical approach.

;;Answer: FALSE

47) Which of the following would not be a complementary asset for a solar panel manufacturer?
A) international solar equipment certification standards
B) government funding for green technology
C) centralized hierarchical decision making
D) innovation-driven management team

;;Answer: C

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