The Human Body Plan + Skeletal System

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10.27.10

Muscle Tissue

tissue composed of cells that can contract; three types - skeletal, smooth, and cardiac

Skeletal Muscle

this muscle moves the bones in your trunk, limbs, and face

Smooth Muscle

this muscle handles body functions that you cannot control consciously

Cardiac Muscle

this muscle, found in your heart, pumps blood through your body

Nervous Tissue

this tissue contains cells that receives and transmits messages in the form of electrical impulses; makes up your brain, spinal cord, and nerves

Neurons

cells that are specialized to send and receive messages throughout the body

Epithelial Tissue

this tissue consists of layers of cells that line or cover all internal and external body surfaces; body's outer layer of skin

Connective Tissue

this tissue binds, supports, and protects structures in the body; most abundant and diverse of the tissues; includes bone, cartilage, tendons, fat, and blood

Matrix

connective tissues are characterized by cells that are embedded in large amounts of an intercellular substance called ______; can be solid, liquid, or semisolid

Organ

this consists of various tissues that work together to carry out a specific function

Skeletal System

bones

Muscular System

muscles (skeletal, cardiac, smooth)

Integumentary System

skin, hair, nails

Cardiovascular System

heart, blood vessels, blood

Respiratory System

air passages, lungs

Immune System

lymph nodes and vessels, white blood cells

Digestive System

mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small and large intestines

Excretory System

kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, skin, lungs

Nervous System

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs, receptors

Endocrine System

glands (such as adrenal, thyroid, pituitary, and pancreas); hypothalamus and specialized cells in the brain, heart, stomach, and other organs

Reproductive System

ovaries, uterus, mammary glands (in females), testes (in males)

Cavities

compartments that house many organs in the human body; five major

Cranial Cavity

contains the brain

Spinal Cavity

surrounds the spinal cord; houses

Diaphragm

wall of muscle that separates the two main cavities in the trunk of the human body

Thoracic Cavity

upper compartment; contains the heart, esophagus, and the organs of the respiratory system

Abdominal Cavity

lower compartment; contains the organs of the digestive system

Pelvic Cavity

contains the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems

206

number of bones in the adult human body

Axial Skeleton

the bones of the skull, ribs, spine, and sternum form this

Appendicular Skeleton

the bones of the arms and legs, along with the scapula, clavicle, and pelvis make up this

periosteum

a tough membrane that covers that surface of a bone; contains a network of blood vessels, which supply nutrients, and nerves, which signal pain

compact bone

a hard material under the periosteum

lamellae

protein fiber; compact bone is composed of cylinders of this

Haversian Canal

a narrow channel in the center of each cylinder; blood vessels run through these

osteocytes

bone cells which are embedded within the gaps of protein layers

spongy bone

a network of connective tissue beneath some compact bone; makes bones both light and strong

bone marrow

a soft tissue which can be red or yellow; found in many bones

Red bone marrow

this bone marrow is found in spongy bones, the ends of long bones, ribs, vertebrae, the sternum, and the pelvis; produces red blood cells, platelets, and which blood cells

Yellow bone marrow

fills the shafts of long bones; consists of mostly fat cells and serves as an energy reserve; can only be converted to the other bone marrow and produce blood cells when severe blood loss occurs

fracture

a crack or break in a bone

ossification

the process by which cartilage is slowly replaced by bone as a result of the deposition of minerals

epiphyseal plate

composed of cartilage cells that divide and form columns; bone elongation take place near the ends of long bones in this area

joint

the place where two bones meet

fixed joints

these joints prevent movement; found in the skull

semimovable joints

these joints permit limited movement; rib cage, vertebrae, and sternum

movable joints

all other joints in the body; include five different types

Hinge Joint

this joint is found in the elbow, which allows you to move your forearm upward and downward

ball and socket joint

this joint is the shoulder joint; it allows your arm to rotate in a complete circle

pivot joint

this joint is formed by your top two vertebrae; it allows you to move your head side to side

saddle joint

this joint is found at the base of each thumb; allowed you to rotate your thumbs and helps you grasp objects with your hand

gliding joints

these joints allowed bones to slide over one another

ligaments

tough bands of connective tissue that hold bones of the joint in place

synovial fluid

this lubricating substance is put on joint that are subjected to a great deal of pressure; protects damage of bones by friction

rheumatoid arthritis

develops when the immune system begins to attack body tissues; joints become inflamed, swollen, stuff, and deformed

osteoarthritis

a degenerative joint disease in which the cartilage covering the surface of bone becomes thinner and rougher; causes severe discomfort

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