Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
A hallmark characteristic of Applied Behavior Analysis; work is "_______" when society shows interest in the problems being studied and there is a close relationship between the behavior and stimuli under study and the organism in which they are studied; that is, the behavior and stimuli should be immediately important to the participants in the study, and there should be a habilitative effect that is socially valid to the society at large. Client self-identified problems and issues surrounding power and control are likely "___________" problems rather than "experimental" problems in behavior analysis. (Sources: Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968, 1987)
A hallmark characteristic of Applied Behavior Analysis; work is "_________" when it has a convincing experimental design, including a functional relationship; it also must make systematic, conceptual sense (Sources; Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968, 1987).
The philosophy of a science of behavior; there are various forms of behaviorism; see RADICAL BEHAVIORISM, METHODOLOGICAL BEHAVIORISM (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
Control (vs. description & prediction)
The third level of scientific understanding, made possible by demonstration of functional relations between independent and dependent variables. Description (suggestion of potential hypotheses) is the first level of scientific understanding; prediction (covariation/correlation) is the second level of scientific understanding (Source: summarized-CHH, Chapter 1).
Information that shows only post hoc, ergo propter hoc reasoning. A functional relation is not demonstrated, as there is no withdrawal of the precipitating stimulus; ordinarily there is also no baseline or preplanned introduction of the manipulation, whether it be antecedent or consequent based (source: constructed response)
The assumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which phenomena occur in relation to other events and not in a willy-nilly, accidental fashion (Source: CHH, 2 Ed)
The objective observation of the phenomena of interest; objective observations are "independent of the individual prejudices, tastes, and private opinions of the scientist.... Results of empirical methods are objective in that they are open to anyone's observation and do not depend on the subjective belief of the individual scientist (Zuriff, 1985, p 9)" (Source: CHH, 2 Ed)
A carefully controlled comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest (the dependent variable) under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (the independent variable) differs from one condition to another (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB)
A natural science approach to the study of behavior as a subject matter in its own right founded by B. F. Skinner; methodological features include rate of response as a basic dependent variable, repeated or continuous measurement of clearly defined response classes, within-subject experimental comparisons instead of group design, visual analysis of graphed data instead of statistical inference, and an emphasis on describing functional relations between behavior and controlling variables in the environment over formal theory testing (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
A fictitious or hypothetical variable that often takes the form of another name for the observed phenomenon it claims to explain and contributes nothing to a functional account or understanding of the phenomenon, such as "intelligence" or "cognitive awareness" as explanations for why an organism pushes the lever when the light is on and food is available but does not push the lever when the light is off and no food is available (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
A verbal statement summarizing the results of an experiment (or group of related experiments) that describes the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one or more specified and controlled variables in the experiment in which a specific change in one event (the dependent variable) can be produced by manipulating another event (the independent variable), and that change in the dependent variable was unlikely the result of other factors (confounding variables); in behavior analysis expressed as b=f(x1), (x2), ...., where b is the behavior and x1, x2, etc. are environmental variables of which the behavior is a function (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
A presumed but unobserved process or entity; e.g., Freud's id, ego, and superego (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
An approach to explaining behavior that assumes that a mental, or "inner," dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension and that phenomena in this dimension either directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behavior, if not all (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
A philosophical position that views behavioral events that cannot be publicly observed as outside the realm of science (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
The practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations, experimentally or conceptually, before considering more complex or abstract explanations (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
An attitude that the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge should be continually questioned (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
A thoroughgoing form of behaviorism that attempts to understand all human behavior, including private events such as thoughts and feelings, in terms of controlling variables in the history of the person/ontogeny and the species/phylogeny (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
(a) Repeating conditions within an experiment to determine the reliability of effects and increase internal validity; (b) repeating whole experiments to determine the generality of findings of previous experiments to other subjects, settings, and/or behaviors
A systematic approach to the understanding of natural phenomena (as evidenced by description, prediction, and control) that relies on determinism as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its primary rule, experimentation as its basic strategy, replication as a requirement for believability, parsimony as a value, and philosophic doubt as a guiding conscience (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).