bio benchmark

42 terms by nyjetsny1 

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hypotonic solution

the water goes into the cell. distilled water outside, into it. pushes out cytoplasm. causes cytolysis, cell bursting in animals.
outside there is less solute

hypertonic solution

water goes out of cell. salt water outside, water leaves cell to meet equilibrium and because of natural diffusion/osmosis. small cytoplasm
outside there is more solute

cytolysis

cell bursting

plasmolysis

cell loses water and shrinks

isotonic solution

solutions are equal in concentrations.

.9%

amnt of salt solution in humans

hemolysis

red blood cell bursting

circulation

the movement of substances within the body in body fluids

intercellular

between cells

diffusion

circulation at the cell level

vascular tissue

at the organism level ... these are examples of arteries veins and capillaries in animals. In plants, xylem and phoem.

intracellular

within ONE cell

cyclosis

cytoplasmic streaming

Absorption

materials pass through cell membranes

cell membrane

selectively semi-permeable

cell membrane

made of double layer of lipids

cell membrane

called fluid mosaic model

diffusion

real def: a random process in which the net from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached.

diffusion problem

if a substance cannot dissolve in H2O it usually cannot pass through membranes (too big)

faster diffusion

this is the issue that makes diffusion go faster, by a bigger difference, then a faster rate.

NO

does diffusion need a membrane?

YES

can molecules diffuse through gas?

osmosis

the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane (obv from high to low conc)

solutions

mixture of 2 or more substances where the molecules are evenly distributed: uniformly distributed mixture

solutions

these are not cloudy... clear, can be colored

solvent

water is the universal...

solvent

does the dissolving

solute

is dissolved

solute

sugar, salt, koolaid powder

passive transport

movement of materials whereby no energy is expended (required) by the cell. it is automatic. high-low (diffusion)

active transport

movement of materials requiring energy. expenditure by the cell (mitochondria)
this is low to high conc
moving substances against the concentration gradient
pinocytosis
phagocytosis
cyclosis

microfilament

The cytoskeleton filaments with the smallest diameter. are composed of the contractile protein actin. They are dynamic filaments, constantly beig made and broken down as needed, and are responsible for events such as pseudopod formation and cytokenesis during mitosis.

microtubules

straight, hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins

endocytosis

in folding or taking in (pino+phago)

exocytosis

large particles leave the cell

pinocytosis

large molecules cant get it, makes an indention for it. then a vacuole forms around the molecules. its active transport

phagocytosis

large insoluble molecules can't get it. the cytoplasm streams outward to form pseudopods, these engulf the molecules. the food vacuoles then form. the lysosomes then digest the food.

cell wall

has pores but is NOT selectively permeable because it is not living like the membrane is

turgor pressure

makes plant cells rigid, because water is pressing against cell wall from the inside

turgid

rigid

prevent cytolysis

excretory systems, urniary system, sweating, exhaling, these are all to ______ _______

prevent cytolysis

contractile vacuoles, to pump out excess water. to _____ _____

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