modify proteins and transports to golgi bodies
packages and ships
monitors what comes in and out of the cell
provides shape and transport mechanism
produces ribosomes and protein
blueprints for proteins
contain digestive enzymes
no ribosomes ; transports; cell membrane production
jelly like material holding organelles in place
made from polysaccharides, these thin, pliable structures allow plant cells to respond to changing water pressure
formed of rigid cellulose, lignin, and additional deposits; reinforces plant cell shape
numerous tiny channels that cross the adjacent primary walls of living plant cells and connect their cytoplasm
link the cells of epithelial tissues linin the body's outer surface, inner cavaties, and organs
joins cells that are subject to stretching
link the cytoplasm of neighboring animal cells and are open channels for the rapid flow of signals and substances
amount of solute
movement of molecules from high to low no energy
random movement H-->L
diffusion of water H--> L
H-->L requires protein channels
energy required needs a protein pump L--> H
form of active transport very large substances
movement into cell
movement out of the cell
differences in concentrations
equal concentration in and out
interact with hydrophobic parts of the bilayer's phospholipids and they are not easy to remove
on membrane surface
passively let solutes cross the membrane through interior
bind extracellular substances that trigger changes in cell activity
identify each cell as belonging to a particular tissue or individual
help tissues of same type locate each other, stick together, and remain in the proper tissues
form channels that match up across the plasma membrane of two cells
lesser solute concentration
greater solute concentration
solutions of equal solute concentration
transmission electron microscope
magnetic field is the lens; accelerated electrons are directed through a specimen, focused into an image, and magnified.
scanning electron microscope
a narrow beam of electrons move back and forth across a specimen to which a thin coat of metal has been applied
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