Sociology Final

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agricultural revolution

included social and economic changes, population increases, and increased efficiency of food production

industrial revolution

rapidly transformed social life resulting from technological and economic developments including the assembly line, steam power, and urbanization

information revolution

refers to the recent revolution made possible by the development of the microchip in the 1970's which brought about vast improvements in the ability to manage information

communism

a theory of system of organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or the state; "giving the government your money"

alienation

separation of workers from the product of their labor, their own productive activity, their fellow workers and from human nature

resistance strategies

ways that workers express discontent with their working conditions and try to reclaim control of the conditions of their labor

individual resistance

can include work time to surf the web, sabotage an assembly line, and personalizing a workspace with photos

collective resistance

can include a union

union

an association of workers who bargain collectively for increased wages and benefits and better working conditions

union wins

8 hour workday, 5 day workweek, workplace safety regulations, minimum wage

globalization

refers to the cultural and economic changes resulting from dramatically increased and international trade and exchange in the late 20th and early 21st centuries

transnational corporations

another part of the global economy that transcend national borders so that their products can be manufactured, distributed, marketed, and sold from bases all over the world

outsourcing

"contracting out" or transferring to another country the labor that a company might otherwise have employed its own staff to perform

sweatshop

workplace where workers are subject to below standard wages, long hours, and poor working conditions

Characteristics of Capitalism

based on the laws of the free market competition, based on production for a profit, based on privatization of the means of production

independent or third sector

annie volunteers at a local "fair trade" store that is a non-profit organization that supports human rights...what part of the economy does annie support?

world health organization (WHO)

division of the united nations; charged with overseeing global health issues; defines "health" as a state of complex physical, metal, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

acute diseases

have a sudden onset, may be briefly incapacitating, and are either curable or fatal

chronic diseases

develop over a longer period of time and may not be detected until symptoms occur later in their progression

palliative care

the kind of health care that focuses on symptom and pain relief--it is not intended to provide a cure; typically used for ill or dying patients

medicalization

process where some issues that used to be seen as personal problems are redefined as medical issues; changes the meaning of a condition to ones self and broader society

epidemiology

study of disease patterns to understand illness, how they spread and how to treat them

deprivation amplification

occurs when the risks we already have because of our background or heredity are amplified by social factors

American medical association (AMA)

social institution that transmits norms and values of medicine and medical knowledge; regulated, licenses, and legitimizes practices; limits who gets admitted to medical schools; polices itself and encroachment on its power

"on being sane in insane places"

eight sane people went to 12 different hospitals all but one were admitted for some psychiatric problem, had not ever been diagnosed before...they acted how they normally would

Single Payer

health care system in which the government pays for all health care cost; type of health care that is rarely discussed..."one payer"

bioethics

the moral or ethical issues related to scientific or medical advancements

preventative medicine

focuses on preventing or stalling illnesses

medicalization

obesity used to be considered a symbol of status, but now it is considered a disease...what term describes that change

pandemic

if a disease suddenly starts spreading rapidly and across many countries or continents, this would be considered

complementary medicine

tanesha starts having back pain...her doctor tells her to take asprin but she practices relaxation techniques also...what treatment is she using?

leisure

refers to time that can be spent relaxing, engaging in recreation or otherwise indulging in freely chosen activities

recreation

includes any pleasurable activity that is refreshing and renewing for the body, mind and spirit

developments that have changed leisure time

technological advances moved leisure time activities to the home; commodification of recreation activities--people purchase their fun as goods and services; recreational activities that were once spontaneous and unsupervised are now formally organized

social class

types of leisure activities are associated with what

media in leisure time

an instrument of change, political tool, inform citizens

conglomeration

process by which a single corporation acquires ownership of a variety of otherwise unrelated businesses

monopoly

a situation in which there is only one individual or organization, without competitors, providing a particular good or service

zines, blogs, podcasts

provide greater diversity of opinion and content than commercial media

hypodermic needle theory

according to this theory, media consumers are passive, uncritical recipients of content

uses and gratification paradigm

focuses on the psychological or social needs that various media fulfill--people needs actively

agenda setting

tells people what stories are important, continuous coverage of particular stories

encoding/decoding model

combines models and recognizes that media texts are created to deliver specific messages and that individuals actually interpret them

antitrust legislation

a law designed to prohibit monopolies in the mass media

local coffeehouse

an example of a third place

social change

the transformation of a culture overtime; can occur by a major physical event, demographic factors, discoveries and innovations, individual actions, collective actions

collective behavior

crowds, masses, or social movements

social movement

refers to any social group with leadership, organization, and an ideological commitment to promote or resist social change

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