World History - Chapter 10 - Muslim World

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World History - Chapter 10 - Muslim Civilizations

Muhammad

the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)

Mecca

the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace

Quran

the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina

Mosque

(Islam) a Muslim place of worship

Hajj

the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah

Jihad

a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal

Sharia law

the code of law derived from the Quran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed

Abu Bakr

his father in law named caliph after the death of muhammad

Caliph

the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth

Sunni

accepted the umauuad rule

Shiite

accepts only decendents of ali as caliph

Sufis

a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life

Umayyads empire

A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.

Abbasids empire

A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750 to about 1250.

Baghdad

capital city of the present day iraq ; capital of the muslim empire during islams golden age

The Five Pillars

1. Profession of faith
2. 5 prayers
3. Giving of Alms (donations)
4. Fasting during Ramadan
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca

Allah

God (an Arabic word, used mainly in Islam).

Islam

a monotheistic religion that developed in Arabia in the seventh century a.d.

Muslim

a follower of Islam

Sunna

an Islamic model for living, based on the life and teachings of muhammad

Shari'a

a body of law governing the lives of Muslims

Shi'a

the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad.

Dont's of islamic society

- Drinking
- Smoking
- Pre-marital sexual relations
- Eating pork
- Eating any animal not killed in a humane way

Sunni (differences from Shi'a)

- Believe that the first four caliphs were "rightly guided"
- Believe that Muslim rulers should follow the Sunna, or Muhammad's example
- Claim that the Shi'a have distorted the meaning of various passages in the Qur'an

Shi'a (differences from Sunni)

- Believe that Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, should have succeeded him
- Believe that all Muslim rulers should be descended from Muhammad; do not recognize the authority of the Sunna
- Claim that the Sunni have distorted the meaning of the passages in the Qur'an

Which religion is more popular Sunni or Shi'a?

Sunni (Sunni 83% ; Shia 16 %)

What is a Hijab?

A hijab is a piece of clothing worn over the woman's head to hide their beauty to the public

What are woman's role in society?

The woman are often not considered as important as the men. They must walk behind the men at all times, they are also not as educated as the men

Why is there conflict between Israel and Palestine?

- Islam, Christianity, and Judaism lived in peace
- Until the 18th century when the Zionists group came (Zionists are a minor group of Judaism)
- They came into the land of Palestine to take over and create a Jewish homeland
- Eventually this caused fighting between the religions
- Hitler came to power, so more Jewish people moved to middle eastern countries - thus causing more problems

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