psy exam

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test 2

The theory of emotional intelligence has been developed and/or written about by

Sternberg.

___________ means maintaining information over time.

Storage

Watson conditioned fear in Little Albert by presenting a white rat with the loud clanging sound. __________ was the CS, and __________ was the US.

The rat; the loud sound

General knowledge of history, algebra, and literature refers to __________ memory

semantic

Mozart was a child prodigy. By the age of 12, he had composed several musical pieces. According to Sternbergs model of intelligence, Mozart demonstrated a high level of ____ intelligence.

creative

Ivan Pavlov is best known for his research in

classical conditioning.

Mental categories used to class together objects, relations, events, abstractions or qualities that have common properties are called

concepts. Correct

Freud discovered that many patients could not recall episodes that happened prior to the age of three and that their recall was cloudy through the age of five. He identified this phenomenon as __________ amnesia.

infantile

Practical intelligence is what might be called ____.

street smart

__________ memory is recalling information that was previously learned; and _________ memory refers to remember to do things in the future.

Retrospective; prospective

Emotional intelligence" is similar to Howard Gardners ____ intelligence.

intrapersonal & interpersonal Correct

In contrast to learning theory, the nativist theory of language development proposes that ____ factors account for the acquisition of language.

inborn

Any stimulus that, when removed, increases the likelihood that a behavior will continue is called a(n)

negative reinforcer.

A slot machine is an example of a

variable ratio schedule. Correct

You are walking along and suddenly startled by the loud sound of a truck backfiring. Your startle response is the ____, and the sound of the backfire is the ____.

UR; US Correct

According to Bandura a person who engages in a response to be imitated is a

model.

Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed the three stages of memory referred to as

sensory, short-term, and long-term.

During Pavlov's classic experiments, after conditioning, the bell was the __________, and salivation was the __________.

CS; CR

A problem-solving technique that involves a specific procedure for the particular type of problem is called

an algorithm.

____ thinking is to narrowing choices as ____ thinking is to broadening choices.

Convergent; divergent

A three-year-old says, "Mommy goed away." This sentence is an example of

overregularization.

A fixed ratio schedule is best described as providing reinforcement after

a fixed number of correct responses have been made.

Breaking complex behaviors down into smaller steps, and reinforcing those steps sequentially as they are completed describes the principle of

shaping

Information at the beginning and end of a list tends to be more easily recalled than information in the middle of the list. This cognitive process is called

serial-position effect.

Howard Gardner has proposed the existence of seven kinds of

intelligence

All of the following are examples of reinforcement schedules except

fixed intermittent

Thomas Edison did poorly in school, but excelled as an inventor. According to Sternbergs model of intelligence, Edison lacked ____ intelligence, but was superior in ____ intelligence.

analytical; creative Correct

A child who is afraid of the water is tossed into a swimming pool to teach him how to swim is an example of

flooding

A Skinnerian therapist treating a patient with depression would focus on

all of these: a. modifying depressive behavior patterns.
c. discrete, observable behaviors of the depressed patient.
d. providing a concrete schedule of specific behaviors to accomplish.

According to interference theory we forget material because

a and b only

Dr. Whorf believes that language structures the way we perceive the world. Therefore, people who speak various languages conceptualize the world in different ways. This is called

the linguistic relativity hypothesis. Correct

Benjamin can remember exactly where he was and what he was doing when he heard about the death of his big brother. This is called a(n)

flashbulb memory.

A dog can be trained to salivate when a bell is sounded by

pairing the sound of the bell with the delivery of food. Correct

Bandura's classic Bobo Doll study on aggressive modeling demonstrates

observational learning.

Forgetting that occurs because new information inhibits the retrieval of previously learned information or because previously learned information inhibits the retrieval of new information is explained by

interference theory. Correct

The classic studies that first made use of nonsense syllables in the study of forgetting and memory were pioneered by

Hermann Ebbinghaus

Communication of thoughts and feelings through symbols that are arranged according to the rules of grammar defines

language

In Ebbinghaus's classic curve of forgetting, the greatest memory loss occurs

most rapidly just after the material is initially learned.

Giovannis car was in a snow bank, and his rear wheels were without traction. He used his ski jacket under one tire and a flattened cardboard box under the other tire to provide the traction he needed to get the car out of the snow bank. Giovanni did NOT show ____ in coming to this solution.

functional fixedness Correct

Your dog starts to salivate when you use the electric can opener to open his can of dog food. After learning the principles of classical conditioning, it becomes obvious to you that the can opener has become an effective

CS.

Generating many possible solutions is a characteristic of

divergent thinking. Correct

A car dealers summer and fall incentive programs are an example of a

fixed interval schedule.

After being conditioned to fear a white rat, Little Albert cried in the presence of other furry objects such as a rabbit and fur coat. This is due to

generalization

The two types of explicit memory described by Tulving are

semantic and episodic memory

The process of locating and returning information to consciousness is referred to as

retrieval.

According to Robert Sternberg, academic ability is ____ intelligence.

analytical

Alex, your dog, has just been switched from dry dog food to canned dog food. Alex has always made a fast dash to the kitchen every time he heard the dog food bag rattling. Switching to canned food will most likely result in

the sound of the bag losing its status as a CS for Alex.

Another term for the "Aha!" experience is

insight

The memory of how to perform a task is

implicit memory

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