Chapter 8

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Classical conditioning

a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is presented repeatedly with one that reflexively elicits a particular response so the neutral stimulus eventually elicits the response to itself (also called respondent conditioning)

Operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is increased or decreased by systematically changing its consequences (also known as instrumental conditioning)

Classical conditioning, operant conditioning

Whereas _________ focuses on the antecedents of behavior, __________ focuses on antecedents and consequences of behavior

Social cognitive theories

Whereas classical and operant conditioning focus on overt behavior, actions that people can directly observe, ___________ focus on the study of covert behavior, those that take place within the individual and cannot be observed.

Cognitive-behavioral

Often used to describe theorists who consider both overt and covert behaviors in their research and psychotherapy

Positive reinforcement

a positive event presented as a consequence of a person performing a behavior

Positive reinforcement

is considered to be one of the most widely used behavior therapy procedures because of its effectiveness in bringing about changes in behavior and its compatibility with cultural values

Extinction

the process of no longer presenting a reinforcer

Examples of extinction

ignoring a crying child, working without being paid, not responding to someone who is talking to you

Generalization

transferring the response to one type of stimuli to similar stimuli

Discrimination

responding differently to stimuli that are similar based on different cues or antecedent events

Shaping

gradually reinforcing certain parts of a target behavior to more closely approximate the desired target behavior

Observational learning

a type of learning in which people are influenced by observing the behaviors of another

4 basic functions of observational learning

attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation

Imaginal coding

mental images of events, such as picturing two friends having talked to each other yesterday

Verbal coding

sometimes called self-talk, refers to subvocal descriptions of events

Vicarious reinforcement

observing someone getting reinforced for performing an action and concluding that performing the same behavior will bring about a reinforcement

Self-efficacy comes from 4 major sources

performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and lowering emotional arousal

Goals of behavior therapy

Situationally specific, depending on the desired behavior change; The client and the therapist work together to develop goals, often referred to as target behaviors

Target behavior

a part of client's problem that can be clearly defined and easily assessed. It is the focus of treatment in behavior therapy

Assessment in behavior therapy is...

a process that continues throughout behavior therapy and after it ends.

broader characteristics

Assessing specific behaviors rather than ______________ or traits is the hallmark of behavioral assessment.

Reactivity

refers to change in clients' behavior caused by knowing that behavior is being recorded or observed.

Systematic desensitization (Wolpe)

A specific procedure for replacing anxiety with relaxation while gradually increasing the imagined exposure to an anxiety-producing situation.

3 major procedures of systematic desensitization:

relaxation, hierarchy, and desensitization

Imaginal flooding therapies

prolonged in vivo or imagined exposure to stimuli that evoke high levels of anxiety, with no ability to avoid or escape the stimuli. Implosive therapy uses this.

in vivo

The Latin term for "in life", which refers to therapeutic procudures that take place in the client's natural environment

Implosive therapy

a type of prolonged intense exposure therapy in which the client imagines exaggerated scenes that include hypothesized stimuli.

Typically, virtual reality therapy is used for

the treatment of anxiety disorders, especially phobias.

Modeling techniques

Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, these techniques provide an opportunity for clients to observe the behavior of another person (a model) and then use the results of their observations.

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)

Behavioral techniques are combined with a focus on clients' use of language to reduce distress. The focus is on accepting a feeling, event, or situation rather than avoiding it. Therapists help clients commit to behaviors that fits with their values.

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