cyrus the great
A remarkable leader who managed to reunite he Persian Empire in a powerful kingdom. Under Cyrus, Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world
A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahuramazda, Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evil.
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
the ancient Panhellenic celebration at Olympia in honor of Zeus
Fought between Athens and Sparta 431-404 BC. Athens had a good navy, Sparta was better on land. Spartans won.
philip II of macedon
ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 BCE; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered rest of Greece which was subjected to Macedonian authority; father of Alexander the Great
that culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as the combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E.
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
Greek word for city-state
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
Rome's greatest public speaker; he argued against dictators and called for a representative government with limited powers
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
one of Socrates' students; was considered by many to be the greatest philosopher of western civilization. Plato explained his ideas about government in a work entitled The Republic. In his ideal state, the people were divided into three different groups.
frequently called the greatist of the Greek dramatists; introduced the 3rd actor; concerned with the human relationships more than religious and philosophical issues; set chourus at 15
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the siege of Troy
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
oldest and simplest of the three orders of classical Greek architecture
an order of classical Greek architecture, more ornate than doric
most ornate of the three orders of classical Greek architecture