Biology: Mitosis and Meiosis

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71 terms · A study guide for facts about mitosis and meiosis used to study for the mitosis quiz and future mitosis/meiosis test.

growth and regeneration of cells

function of mitosis

producing new gametes

function of meiosis

all body cells

location of mitosis

sex cells

location of meiosis

two

number of daughter cells in mitosis

four

number of daughter cells in meiosis

no change

change of chromosome number in mitosis

no change

change of chromosome number in meiosis

one

number of cell divisions in mitosis

two

number of cell divisions in meiosis

the daughter cell is a replica of the parent cell

difference in DNA in parent cell and daughter cell in mitosis

each gamete has a unique combination of alleles

difference in DNA in parent cell and daughter cell in meiosis

no

Are chromosomes visible in most cells except during cell division?

chromatids

When chromosomes become visible at the beginning of cell division, what does each chromosome consist of?

centromere

Each pair of chromatids is attached at an called the ____.

G-1 phase, S phase, G-2 phase

the phases that take place during interphase

cell growth

What happens during G-1 phase?

DNA replication

What happens during S phase?

preparation for mitosis

What happens during g-2 phase?

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

the four phases of mitosis

centrioles

What are the two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope at the beginning of prophase?

spindle

microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes

prophase

The chromosomes become visible during this stage of mitosis.

prophase

the centrioles take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus during this stage of mitosis

metaphase

The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell during this stage of mitosis.

anaphase

the chromosomes move until they form two groups near the poles of the spindle during this stage of mitosis.

telophase

a nuclear envelope re-forms around each cluster of chromosomes during this stage of mitosis

telophase

the nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter nucleus during this stage of mitosis

cytokinesis

the division of the cell is called ____.

plant cell

A cell plate forms in a ____.

animal cell

A cleavage furrow forms in a _____.

cell plate

What forms miday between the divided nucleus during cytokinesis in plant cells?

mitosis

M phase is also known as ___.

they are stimulated to divide rapidly

What happens to the cells at the edges of an injury when a cut in the skin or a break in the bone occurs?

rate of cell division slows

What happens to the rapidly dividing cells when the healing process nears completion?

cyclins

What regulate the entry of cells into the G-1 Phase?

proteins

What are internal regulators?

external regulators

They direct cells to speed or slow the cell cycle, include growth factors, and prevent excessive cell growth.

cancer

a disorder where some body cells lose the ability to regulate cell growth

cancer

a disease of the cell cycle

cytokinesis

the division of a cell's cytoplasm

telophase

the final phase of mitosis

metaphase

the phase of mitosis in which microtubules connect the centromere of each chromosome to the poles of the spindle

chromatids

What two chromosomes consist of at the beginning of cell division?

anaphase

the phase of mitosis that ends when the chromosomes stop moving

cell division

the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells

centriole

a tiny structure located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope

centromere

the area where a pair of chromatids are attached

mitosis

the division of the cell nucleus

cyclin

a protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

cell cycle

the series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

spindle

a fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes

interphase

the time period between cell divisions

G2 phase

the phase in which many organelles and molecules needed for cell division are formed

metaphase

the phase in which the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

cytokinesis

the process in which two daughter cells are formed

cell wall

the structure that forms in the cell plate

cytoplasm

What divides during cytokinesis?

prophase

the first and longest phase of mitosis

metaphase

the second and shortest phase of mitosis

anaphase

the phase of mitosis in which the duplicated chromosomes separate from each other

telophase

the phase of mitosis in which two distinct nuclei form

cell specialization

specific cells are created to carry out specific functions

white blood cell

a cell that is specialized to destroy bacteria in the bloodstream

nerve cells

one type of message-carrying cells in the body which are part of the nervous system

tissue

a group of similar cells that perform similar functions

organ

a group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function

cyclin

protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

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