Sociology Review

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Modules 1-5

The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called __________.

the sociological perspective (imagination)

The French sociologist Emile Durkheim is most identified with which of the following areas of study?

social integration

Karl Marx believed that _______ was the central force for social change, while Max Weber believed that _______ was the force most responsible for social change.

economics; religion

Functionalist and conflict theorists tend to focus on the __________, or large scale patterns of society, in conducting their analyses.

macro level

Sociologist who analyze how social life depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are most likely _______________.

symbolic interactionists

Karl Marx suggested that the force that drives human history and is at the core of human society is _______.

class conflict

When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, "They're primitive people who eat animals from the streets, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast." Harry's reply BEST qualifies as an example of ____________.

ethnocentrism

Sociologists use the concept of "norms" to describe _________.

expectations or rules of behavior that develop from values

Within a few blocks in midtown Manhattan, you can purchase a bagel with cream cheese, a hot dog, a steak, a polish sausage, or a pizza, as well as chow mien, lamb curry, sushi, lasagna, falafels, chicken couscous, enchiladas, and a host of ethnic specialties. This range of culinary possibilities illustrates the process of _________.

cultural diffusion

Receiving the Medal of Honor and making the Dea's List are both examples of ________.

positive sanctions

In the "nature vs. nature" argument regarding socialization, teh "nurture" component refers to ___________.

the social environment

Based on studies of isolated and institutionalized children, what is the key variable in acquiring the basic "human" traits we take for granted?

intimate early social interaction

The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of __________ by parents.

gender socialization

John joined the military this year. When he arrived at boot camp he was immediately greeted with a degradation ceremony and came under total control of the officials. The military is an example of a(n) _______.

total institution

How does the mass media influence gender roles in contemporary American society?

it reinforced gender roles considered appropriate for one's sex

What two sociological perspectives are most closely linked to macro-sociology?

symbolic interactionism

The difference between status and role is that __________.

we occupy a status that is a social position, but we play a role that is a social expectation

Expectations that guide our behavior are called ___________.

norms

Which of the following societies has the LEAST social inequality?

hunting and gathering

A system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as _______.

social stratification

In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the MOST common basis for social stratification has been __________.

gender

In some societies, closely related members of the ruling class and the upper class marry to preserve the boundaries between castes, so the superior caste will not be contaminated by the inferior caste. This is a practice known as _________.

endogamy

What is the basis of India's caste system?

religion

The occupation with the highest prestige in the United States is a ________.

physician

What are the three variable Max Weber identified as defining social class?

property, power, prestige

What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?

intergenerational mobility

As described in the text, what are two myths of race?

one race is superior to another; pure races exist

Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedro's loan was turned down while George was granted a loan. In comparing their credit history, both men have good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of _________ against Pedro.

institutional discrimination

Prejudice describes __________ while discrimination describes __________.

attitude; actions

What is the largest minority group in the United States today?

Latino American

Agatha has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion MOST likely illustrates ___________.

the "glass ceiling"

In what society were women and men often considered social equals?

hunting and gathering

Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?

It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life

The term for the unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person's sex is _________.

gender stratification

While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ___________ characteristics.

Biological

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