Election of 1824
All five candidates, including Calhoun were Republicans, showing that the Republican party was splintering, due to rival sectional components. Calhoun withdrew and ran for the vice presidency. Jackson won more popular and electoral votes than the other candidates but didn't manage to gain the majority needed Because Clay supported Adams, Adams became president
Immediately after John Quincy Adams became President, he appointed Henry Clay as Secretary of State. Jacksonians were furious because all former Secretaries of State became Presidents. This "_________" occurred after the Election of 1824 when Andrew Jackson had the most electoral votes, but not majority. Then, Henry Clay (having the least of the electoral votes) gave them to John Q. Adams, giving him the majority and making him President. Jacksonians question whether John Q. Adams made Henry Clay Sec. of State for payback in giving his votes.
Election of 1828
running candidates for president were John Q. Adams and Andrew Jackson, there was an increased turnout of voters at this election. The large turnout proved that the common people now had the vote and the will to use it for their ends. The results of the election show that the political center of gravity was shifting away from the conservative seaboard East toward the emerging states across the mountains. The revolution was peaceful, achieved by ballots.
included many reforms: free public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories, and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions.
Extension of franchise
more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land
a system that Andrew Jackson set up not long after his election into the presidency in 1828; it had already developed a strong hold in the industrial states such as New York and Pennsylvania; it gave the public offices to the political supporters of the campaign; the name came from Senator Marcy's remark in 1832, "to the victor belongs the spoils of the enemy; made politics a full time business.
part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
candidates were elected by small, secretive party groups and the public had little say in the process
National Nominating Conventions
delegates voted on the results of a primary
President Jackson had an official cabinet, but its members were used more as executive clerks than anything else. Jackson had a private cabinet of about thirteen members that were always changing. The cabinet grew out of Jackson's unofficial meetings and was known as the "________." Jackson's adversaries and enemies gave the group of advisors this name.
Peggy Eaton affair
Eaton, Secretary of War, married the daughter of a Washington boardinghouse keeper, Peggy O'Neal. She had rumors spread about her and the male boarders. She was snubbed by ladies in Jackson's family and Vice President Calhoun's wife. The President wanted to help her because his wife had been the object of many rumors. He tried to force the social acceptance of Peggy. This was called the "Petticoat War." The Eaton scandal played into the hands of Secretary of State Van Buren. He paid attention to Mrs. Eaton so he could get on Jackson's good side.
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the _____ were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin.
Maysville Road Veto
proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
Election of 1832
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
John C. Calhoun
Jackson's first vice president, anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; ________suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.
Tariff of Abominations
Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them
a nationalist from New Hampshire. He was involved in the _____-Haynes debate over states' rights. He served as Secretary of State under the Tyler administration. In 1836 he ran for the Presidency as a member of the Whig party, losing to Martin Van Buren. He was also America's greatest orator.
debate in 1830 was over an 1830 bill by Samuel A. Foote to limit the sale of public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster, in a dramatic speech, showed the danger of the states' rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war. States' rights (South) vs. nationalism (North).
SC Exposition and Protest
Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay ______, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress
Jefferson Day dinner
April 13, 1830 - At the _____________, President Jackson toasted, "Our federal union! It must and shall be preserved!" making it clear to the nullifiers that he would resist the states' rights supporters' claim to nullify the tariff law. V.P. Calhoun's response to the toast was, "The union, next to our liberty, most dear. May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing evenly the benefits and burdens of the Union." Calhoun had wanted Jackson to side with him (for states' rights) in public, but he didn't succeed.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
Henry Clay devised the ____________ which gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise.
authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The __________ was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary
Martin Van Buren
a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which ________ became the leader.
ran for president multiple times without success, known for his American system, leader of the National Republican/Whig Party
became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
Second Bank of the U.S.
a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it.
Bank Recharter Bill
question about rechartering second national bank, vetoed by Jackson
Jackson, in his _________ of the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners.
were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds
Roger B. Taney
The Charles River Bridge Decision, delivered by _________, modified C.J. Marshall's ruling in the Darmouth College Case of 1819, which said that a state could not make laws infringing on the charters of private organizations. _____ ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public.
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The _________ required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co.
court case, _____________ protested when the ______________ was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the ___________ was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the ____________ could build its bridge. Began the legal concept that private companies cannot injure the public welfare.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
act requiring Indians in the east to move westward
Black Hawk War
The leader of the Illinois tribes of Indians in the 1830's. When the Indians were uprooted, and forced out of their homes, the ________ ensued. However, their leader wasn't powerful enough, because in 1832 they were brutally defeated, and forced to move into Oklahoma.
Worcester v. Georgia
Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.
Trail of Tears
Many died on the trail to Oklahoma after the Indian Removal Act of 1830; the journey became known as the "________".
Log Cabin Campaign of 1840
Harrison was the first president to campaign actively for office. He did so with the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too." Tippecanoe referred to Harrison's military victory over a group of Shawnee Indians at a river in Indiana called Tippecanoe in 1811. Democrats laughed at Harrison for being too old for the presidency, and referred to him as "Granny," hinting that he was senile. Whigs, eager to deliver what the public wanted, took advantage of this and declared that Harrison was "the log cabin and hard cider candidate," a man of the common people from the rough-and-tumble West. They depicted Harrison's opponent, President Martin Van Buren, as a wealthy snob who was out of touch with the people
Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842
signed August 9, 1842, was a treaty resolving several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies, particularly a dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border. It also established the details of the border between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, originally defined in the Treaty of Paris (1783); reaffirmed the location of the border (at the 49th parallel) in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains, originally defined in the Treaty of 1818; called for a final end to the slave trade on the high seas, to be enforced by both signatories; and agreed on terms for shared use of the Great Lakes.