US History 1865-Present Final Exam

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Second Front Issue

Stalin wanted Britain and US to invade mainland Europe to start a second front and relieve German pressure from Russia. US delayed response caused Cold War tensions.

Marshall Plan

A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.

Truman Doctrine

..., First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.

Fall of China

1945-1949; Mao captures Beijing; Chiang's armies disintegrated, surrendering or melting away into the countryside. Don't really know how to ID this. Look on pages 893-4, Trumans Low Point!!! Communism takes CHINA! Mao captures Beijing; Chiang's armies disintegrated, surrendering or melting away into the countryside.

John Foster Dulles

American politican principally known for serving as Eisenhower's Secretary of State; drafted the "policy of boldness" designed to confront Soviet aagression with the threat of "massive retaliation" via thermonuclear weapons

Korean War

..., The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. 1950-1953

New Look

(1) Eisenhower's Cold War strategy, criticized as "brinksmanship" by some because it preferred nuclear deterrence to ground force involvement & emphasized the threat of massive retaliation; (2) Eisenhower worked to increase nuclear spending and while decreasing the overall military budget.

Massive Retaliation/Brinkmanship

The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.

Liberation

the establishment of the Chinese Communist government in 1949 by CHairman Mao; so called because the Communist Party claimed to be liberating the common people from feudalism and from Chiang Kai-shek's oppression.

Berlin Wall

A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.

Bay Of Pigs

In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

Cuban Missile Crisis

(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba

Gulf Of Tonkin Resolution

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.

Tet Offensive

1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment

My Lai Massacre

1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.

Invasion of Cambodia

1970, Nixon ordered troops into Cambodia to disrupt the Ho Chi Minh Trail and other supply lines used by North Vietnam, even though Cambodia was neutral. In 1970, he ordered air and ground strikes in Cambodia. This is the most controversial act of his to end the Vietnam War.

Fair Deal

An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.

Taft-Hartley Act

1947 - Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.

Election of 1948

Dewey didn't campaign because he thought he had a sure victory. Truman campaigned like crazy, and eventually won, pulling a huge upset. He won because of farmers, workers, and blacks voting.

Dixiecrats

Conservative southern Democrats who objected to President Truman's strong push for civil-rights legislation. Southern Democrats who broke from the party in 1948 over the issue of civil rights and ran a presidential ticket as the States' Rights Democrats with J. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina as a canidate.

1950 Social Security Act

8=D

K1C2

Korea, corruption, communism. Eisnerhower's campaign message. End war in korea, end corruption, anti-communism. Election of 1952 marks a change in campaigning through use of media. More money spent advertising candidates than ever before

McCarthyism

The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.

Checkers Speech

A speech made by vice presidential candidate Richard Nixon in 1952 after he had been accused of improprieties regarding a fund established for him to reimburse him for his political expenses. In it, he said that he defended himself and said regardless of what everyone else thought, he would keep a dog that his kids had named checkers. It led to an outpouring of support for Nixon and it secured his place on the republican ticket for the 1952 election.

Dixon-Yates Scandal

1954-Electric Power Scandal that tainted the Eisenhower Administration

The Other America

(1962)-This novel was an influential study of poverty in the U.S, published by Michael Harrington & it was a driving force behind the "war on poverty." 1/5 of U.S was living below poverty line.

War on Poverty

1965 - Johnson figured that since the Gross National Profit had risen, the country had lots of extra money "just lying around," so he'd use it to fight poverty. It started many small programs, Medicare, Head Start, and reorganized immigration to eliminate national origin quotas. It was put on hold during the Vietnam War.

New Economics

WALTER HELLER (1963) Chair of Committee of Economic advisors for John F Kennedy, that proposed a Keynesian approach to regulating the economy. He proposed tax cuts and high government spending at same time to boost economy, with a small, unproblematic deficit. New Economics = expansion of federal deficit.

Brown V Board of Education

1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.

Emmett Till

Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.

Little Rock Nine

1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.

Letter from Birmingham Jail

A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.

Freedom Riders

Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation

Freedom Summer

..., a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of four established civil rights organizations: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with SNCC playing the lead role.

1964 Civil Rights Act

This act prohibited Discrimination because of race, color, sex, religion, or national origin by employers or labor unions; The adoption by voting registrars of different standards for black and white applicants; and Racial or religious discrimination in public accommodations.

1965 Voting Rights Act

This act suspended the use of literacy tests and authorized the appointment of federal examiner who could order the registration of blacks in states and counties where fewer than 50% were registered, or voted previously.

Counterculture

A mode of life opposed to the conventional or dominant, that rejects established social values and practices, esp. among the young.

New Left

Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.

Stonewall Riot

In June 1969, police officers raided this Inn, which was a gay nightclub in New York, and began arresting patrons for attending the place. Gay onlookers taunted the police and then attacked them. Someone started a fire in the Inn, almost trapping people inside. This marked the beginning of the gay liberation movement. New organizations also began to rise up, like the Gay Liberation Front, which was founded in New York.

Women's Liberation Movement

1960s to present. argued that the traditional family form is oppressive for women and children. takes away womens independence and that we need to start looking at families differently (REINVISIONING THE FAM)

Great Society

President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.

Medicare/Medicaid

Great Society programs to have the government provide medical aid to the elderly (Medicare) and the poor (Medicaid).

Barry Goldwater

1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history

1964 Election

1964- We see for the first time that the south has voted Republican. Significant because LBJ signs the Civil Rights Act and after 1964 the south goes republican. LBJ wins the 1964 election.

George Wallace

Racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot

1968 Democratic National Convention

Riots and violence in Chicago outside the Democratic National Convention in 1968; protestors chanted "the whole world is watching" as police brutalized demonstrators and innocent bystanders alike

1968 Election

Richard M. Nixon emerged from the election as victorious by only a small margin, partly caused by George Wallace's third party taking votes form Hubert Humphrey. He received 43.4 percent of the popular vote and 301 electoral votes with his conservative proposals of restoring stability.

Robert F. Kennedy

He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan after victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.

Kent State

an Ohio University where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4,1970, wounding nine and killing four

Oil Crisis of 1973

the Organization Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) placed an oil embargo on the US in response to their decision to resupply the Israeli military during the Yom Kippur War. As a result, oil prices had risen, and the Nixon Administration made negotiations with Arab oil producers to end the embargo.

Watergate

1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down

Fall of Saigon

Late in April 1975, communist forces marched into Saigon, shortly after officials of the Thieu regime and the staff of the American embassy had fled the country in humiliating disarray. The forces quickly occupied the capital, renamed it Ho Chi Minh City and began he process of uniting Vietnam under Hanoi.

Iran Hostage Crisis

In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.

Evil Empire Speech

delivered by Reagan in 1983, this speech characterized the Soviet Union as "an evil empire" with "dark purposes." The U.S. administration proceeded to spend more on military preparedness, including "Star Wars" and took a more assertive role in foreign policy including in Central America, the Caribbean, Libya, and the Middle East. Even repressive authoritarian regimes were propped up if they were anti-Communist.

1984 Election

Republicans - Reagan and Bush BEAT - Democrats - the horrible Walter Mondale and GERALDINE FERRARO (from NY). Win b/c yuppies. Regan carried 49 states, landslide victory.

Iran Contra Scandal

Although Congress had prohibited aid to the Nicaraguan contras, individuals in Reagan's administration continued to illegally support the rebels. These officials secretly sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages being held in the Middle East. Profits from these sales were then sent to the contras.

Reaganomics

The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.

Hour Glass Society

8=D

Reagan Revolution

Pioneered by Ronald Reagan who cut spending food stamps and job programs, rose federal spending drastically, and gave tax cuts to the wealthy to stimulate the economy; a huge gap would form between rich and poor.

Willie Horton

As Governor of Massachussets, Michael Dukakis had supported a prison furlough program for inmates in state prisons. Willie Horton, a convicted murderer, was on one of the furloughs when he committed a rape and assault in Maryland. George H.W. Bush used Willie Horton (ran ads) as an example of Dukakis' ineptitude and lack of responsibility. Dukakis would lose the election.

Gulf War I

1991- replacement/extension of Cold War/ US becomes involved in Mieddle East because Soviets are there and US wants oil/ US arms Iraq in arms against Iran but then Iraq invades Kuait and US gets involved

Los Angeles Riots

(GB1) , Outbreak of violence in 1992 caused by the acquittal of four white policemen of beating an African American = Rodney King, motorist in Los Angeles

Welfare to Workfare

CLINTON a governmental plan under which welfare recipients are required to accept public-service jobs or to participate in job training.

Culture Wars

Clashes within mainstream society over the values and norms that should be upheld.

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