← Bio Chapter 11 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All signal transduction pathway process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted to a specific cellular response in a series of steps local regulators messenger molecules that only influence cells in the vicinity hormones used by both plants and animals for long-distance signaling reception occurs when the signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein located at cell's surface or inside of cell transduction when the signaling molecule is binded, the receptor protein changes, changing the signal to a form that can bring a specific cellular response response transduced signal triggers a specific cellular response ligand a molecule that specifically binds to another molecule (usually a larger one) G protein-coupled receptor plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G Protein G protein a protein that binds the energy rich molecule GTP Receptor tyrosine kinases accept a ligand and then bond with another one to form a Dimer, goes through phosphorylation, leads to a cellular response ligand-gated ion channel a type of membrane receptor containing a region that can act as a gate when the receptor changes shape and in the presence of a ligand protein kinase general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein protein phosphatases enzymes that can rapidly remove phosphate groups from proteins second messengers small, non-protein, water-soluble molecules or ions that are involved in many signaling pathways cyclic AMP a second messenger that transfers the effects of hormones and activates protein kinases adenylyl cyclase converts ATP to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal scaffolding proteins large relay proteins which affect the efficiency of signal transduction. several other relay proteins are usually attached apoptosis a program of controlled cell suicide which cells enter if they are infected or damaged so as to not affect the other cells. Cellular agents chop up DNA and fragment the organelles and other cytoplasmic components. the cell shrinks and becomes lobed and the cells parts are packaged in vesicles and digested by scavenger cells.