## Newton's Three Laws of Motion

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##### Created by:

swathigk  on October 27, 2010

##### Classes:

Seventh Grade Buddies (T.H.Rogers)

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# Newton's Three Laws of Motion

 Air ResistanceForce that opposes the motion of objects that move through the air.
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#### Definitions

Air Resistance Force that opposes the motion of objects that move through the air.
Centripetal Acceleration Acceleration of an object toward the center of a curved or circular path.
Centripetal Force A net force that is directed toward the center of a curved or circular path.
Friction Force that opposes the sliding motion between two touching surfaces.
Gravity Attractive force between two objects that depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.
Momentum Property of a moving object that equals its mass times its velocity.
Newton's First Law of Motion States that an object moving at a constant velocity keeps moving at that velocity unless an unbalance net force acts on it. If an object is at rest, it stays at rest unless an unbalanced net force acts on it.
Newton's Second Law of Motion States that the acceleration of an object is in the same direction as the net force on the object, and that the acceleration equals the net force divided by the mass.
Newton's Third Law of Motion States that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force on the first object that is equal in strength and opposite in direction.
Sliding Friction Frictional force that opposes the motion of two surfaces sliding past each other.
Static Friction Frictional force that prevents two surfaces from sliding past each other.
Weight Gravitational force exerted on an object.
Rolling Friction Frictional force between a rolling object and the surface it rolls on.
Terminal Velocity The highest speed a falling object will reach.
Law of Conservation of Momentum If a group of objects exerts forces only on each other, their total momentum doesn't change.
Net Force When two or more forces act on an object at the same time, the forces combine.
Inertia Resistance of an object to a change in its motion.
Force A push or pull.
Balanced Forces Forces on an object that are equal in size and opposite in direction.
The backward "kick" of a rifle that is fired is an example of a(n) ______________ force. reaction
Air rushing out of the neck of a balloon causes the balloon to move. The air that comes from the balloon is an example of a(n) _____________ force. action
In the equation p= m × v, p represents __________. momentum
Momentum has direction because _____________ has direction. velocity
Momentum is a property a moving object has because of its _________ and velocity. mass
Every object in the universe exerts a force on every other object. This force is called ______________. gravity
The measure of the gravitational force exerted by Earth on an object is the object's _____________. weight
The amount of gravitational force between two objects depends on their _____________________. mass and distance
Weight is measured in units called _____________. newtons
The greater an object's ____________, the stronger the gravitational force on it. mass
Mass is measured in units called _______________. grams and kilograms
A weight reading on a scale shows the _______________ exerted by the scale. upward force
Earth exerts a stronger gravitational force than the moon because Earth has more ___________. mass
The masses of your hand and your notebook are quite small, so the force of attraction between them is ___________. weak
An object transported from the surface of the Earth to the surface of the Moon has its weight _________. decreased
Equation for Net Force Net Force= mass × acceleration
( N= m × a )
Equation for Force of Earth's Gravity Force of Gravity= mass × acceleration of gravity
( F= m × g )
Equation for Weight Weight= mass × acceleration of gravity
( W= m × g )
Equation for Momentum Momentum= mass × velocity
( P= m × v )
Find Your Mass if a scale on earth reads 650 N when you stand on it. W=mg
650=9.8m
m=66.3 kg
(9.8 is the average gravitational acceleration for earth)
You weigh yourself at the top of a high mountain and the scale reads 720 N. If your mass is 75 kg, what is the acceleration of gravity at your location? 720 N= 75g
g= 9.6 m/s²
What is the acceleration due to gravity near Earth's surface? 9.8 m/s²
A 2 kg metal ball moving at the speed of 3m/s strikes a 1 kg wooden ball that is at rest. After the collision, the speed of the metal ball is 1 m/s. Assuming momentum is conserved, what is the speed of the wooden ball? P=mv Pm₁= Pm₂ + Pw
Pm₁= 2 × 3= 6 kg m/s² 6= 2 + Pw
Pm₂= 2 × 1= 2 kg m/s² Pw= 4 m/s
Find the mass of a car that has a speed of 30 m/s and a momentum of 45,000 kg m/s. P= mv
4,500= 30m
m= 1,500 kg
Explain whether there can be any forces acting on a car moving in a straight line with a constant speed. Yes, because you could have gravity, friction, and balanced forces acting on the car.
What is the momentum of a 250 kg antelope running at a speed of 15 m/s? p= 250 × 15
p= 3,750 kg m/s
What is the momentum of a car with a mass of 1300 kg traveling at a speed of 28 m/s? p= 1,300 × 28
p= 36,400 kg m/s
What is the mass of a person walking at a speed of 0.8 m/s if their momentum is 52 kg m/s? 52= 0.8m
m= 65 kg
Find the acceleration due to gravity on Mars if a person with a mass of 60 kg weighs 222 N on Mars. W= mg
222= 60g
g= 3.7 m/s²
Find the force exerted by a rope on a 10 kg mass that is hanging from the rope. F= ma
F= 10 × 9.8
F= 98 Newtons
If the mass of a helicopter is 4500 kg, and the net force on it is 18000 N, what is the helicopter's acceleration? F= ma
18,000= 4,500a
a= 4 m/s²
What is the net force on a dragster with a mass of 900 kg if its acceleration is 32 m/s²? F= ma
F= 900 × 32= 28,800 Newtons
A car is being pulled by a tow truck. What is the car's mass if the net force on the car is 3000 N and it has an acceleration of 3.0 m/s²? 3,000= 3a
a= 1,000 kg
What can you do to increase your momentum? Increase mass and velocity
Describe the path of a projectile. curved path
If a ball is dropped and one is thrown horizontally from the same height, which one will hit the ground first? Explain your answer. They will both hit the ground at the same time because both of the objects have an acceleration of 9.8 m/s²

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