techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life
seek to increase insight into clients' difficulties; general goal is to help people gain greater control over and improvements in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts, which usually date back to early childhood experiences into consciousness
becoming aware of previously hidden conflicts permits a release of tension and anxiety
when you let your mind wander and remove conscious censorship over thoughts, interesting and bizarre connections seem to spring into awareness
suddenly "forgetting" what they were saying or completely changing the subject
helps the patient "relive" painful past relationships in a safe, therapeutic setting so that he or she can move on to healthier relationships
core of all psychoanalytic therapy
a briefer, more directive contemporary form of psychoanalysis, which emphasizes conscious processes and current problems
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
influential, brief form of psychodynamic therapy; focuses almost exclusively on the client's current relationships
therapy that focuses on changing faulty thought processes and beliefs to treat problem behaviors
unrealistic things a person tells him or herself
allows clients to challenge their thoughts, change how they interpret events, and modify maladaptive behaviors
ABCD approach involved in creating and dealing with maladaptive thinking
person's belief system
emotional and behavioral consequences
disputing erroneous beliefs
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
once clients recognize their self defeating thoughts, Ellis begins working with them on how to behave differently-to test out new beliefs and to learn better coping skills; reflecting this increased attention to behavioral change
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
designed to reduce both self-destructive thoughts and self-destructive behaviors
therapy that seeks to maximize personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional adjustment)
encourages people to actualize their potential and to relate to others in genuine ways
therapists pay attention to body language and listen for subtle cues to help them understand the emotional experiences of clients
Unconditional Positive Regard*
clients can be respected and cherished without having to prove themselves worthy of the therapist's esteem
when therapists honestly share their thoughts and feelings with their clients, their clients will in turn develop self-trust and honest self-expression
by reflecting, paraphrasing, and clarifying what the client says and means, the clinician communicates that he or she is genuinely interested in what the client is saying
a form of therapy in which a number of people meet together to work toward therapeutic goals
groups of people who share a common problem and who meet to give and receive support; a professional does not guide the group
treatment to change maladaptive interaction patterns within a family
a group of techniques based on learning principles that is used to change maladaptive behaviors
uses principles of classical conditioning to create anxiety rather than extinguish it
begins with relaxation training, followed by imagining or directly experiencing various versions of a feared object or situation while remaining deeply relaxed
providing rewards for successive approximations of the target behavior
a learning technique in which the subject watches and imitates models who demonstrate desirable behaviors
using physiological interventions to reduce or alleviate symptoms of psychological disorders
the study of drug effects on the mind and behavior
lower the sympathetic activity of the brain so that anxious responses are diminished or prevented and are replaced by feelings of tranquility and calmness
used to treat schizophrenia and other acute psychotic states
Mood Stabilizer Drugs
can help relieve manic episodes and depression for people suffering from bipolar disorder
used to treat people with depression
biomedical therapy in which electrical current is passed through the brain
operative procedures on the brain designed to relieve severe mental symptoms that have not responded to other forms of treatment
cutting nerve fibers between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and hypothalamus
clinicians who regularly borrow freely from various theories
discharging patients from mental hospitals as soon as possible an discouraging admissions
patterns of emotion, thught, and action that are considered patholigcal for one or more of these reasons: statistical infrequency, disability or dysfunction, personal distress, or violation of norms
the perspective that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured
the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders
a person who cannot be held responsible for his or her actions, or is judged incompetent to manage his or her own affairs because of mental illness
the patient's current condition, or "state," such as anxiety, substance abuse, depression
enduring problems that seem to be an integral part of the self including long-running personality disorders and mental retardation
type of abnormal behavior characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
chronic, uncontrollable, and excessive fear and worry that lasts at least six months and that is not focused on any particular object or situation
sudden, but brief, attacks of intense apprehension that cause trembling, dizziness, and difficulty breathing
strong, irrational fear, and avoidance of objects or situations that are usually considered harmless
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)*
disorder involves persistent, unwanted, fearful thoughts (obsessions), and/or irresistible urges to perform an act or repeated rituals (compulsions), which help relieve the anxiety created by the obsession
extreme disturbances in emotional states
Major Depressive Disorder
long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life
repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression
depression occurs when people (and other animals) become resigned to the idea that they are helpless to escape from something painful
a group of psychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior; the individual withdraws from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations
imaginary sensory perceptions that occur without an external stimulus
mistaken beliefs based on misrepresentations of reality
Positive Schizophrenia Symptoms
involve additions to or exaggerations of normal thought processes and behaviors, including bizarre delusions and hallucinations
Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms
involve the loss or absence of normal thought processes and behaviors, including impaired attention, limited or toneless speech, flattened affect, and social withdrawal
abuse of or dependence on a mood or behavior altering durg
substance related disorders commonly coexist with other mental disorders
individuals drink or use drugs to reduce their symptoms
amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities resulting form avoidance of painful memories or situations
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
two separate and distinct personalities exist within a person at the same time; multiple personality disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder*
most commonly diagnosed personality disorder; impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and self-image
inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and occupational functioning
Your textbook defines abnormal behavior as _________.
a statistically infrequent pattern of pathological emotion, thought, or action; patterns of emotion, thought, and action that are considered pathological; a pattern of pathological emotion, thought, or action that causes personal distress or violates social norms
The specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders
Label the five axes of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
Axis I. clinical disorders,
Axis II. personality disorders and mental retardation,
Axis III. general medical conditions,
Axis IV. psychosocial and environmental problems,
Axis V. global assessment of functioning
Anxiety disorders are _________
characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear
Label the five major anxiety disorders:
(a) generalized anxiety disorder
(b) panic disorder
(d) obsessive-compulsive disorder
(e) posttraumatic stress disorder
The two main types of mood disorders are _________ .
major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder
Someone who experiences repeated episodes of mania or cycles between mania and depression has a _________ .
According to the theory known as _________ , when faced with a painful situation from which there is no escape, animals and people enter a state of helplessness and resignation.
A psychotic disorder that is characterized by major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior is _________ .
Perceptions for which there are no appropriate external stimuli are called _________ , and the most common type among people suffering from schizophrenia is _________ .
Label the five subtypes of schizophrenia:
Failure to meet obligations may be indicative of alcohol or drug _________ whereas tolerance and withdrawal may be indicative of alcohol or drug _________ .
The disorder that is an attempt to avoid painful memories or situations and is characterized by amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities is _________ .
Inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and occupational functioning is known as _________ .
Which of the following are examples of culture-general symptoms of mental health difficulties, useful in diagnosing disorders across cultures?
(a) trouble sleeping
(b) can't get along
(c) worry all the time
Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic standards of identifying abnormal behavior?
Schizophrenia is characterized by a major disturbance in
thought, language, perception
Hallucination is to _____________ as delusion is to ____________.
Which of the following has been identified as a possible cause of schizophrenia?
disturbed family communications, brain damage, genetic predisposition
Women are 2 to 3 times more likely to be depressed than men. According to research which of the following helps to explain this difference
biological influences, psychological influences, social influences
What are the five types of disturbance in schizophrenia?
thought, perception, language, behavior, emotion
The classification system produced by the American Psychiatric Association and used to describe abnormal behaviors is called the DSM-IV-TR. DSM is an abbreviation for _____.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
According to the humanistic perspective, anxiety is a result of __________.
blocked personal growth
Evolutionary perspectives in explaining abnormal behavior emphasize ____________ in the development of psychological disorders.
exaggerated forms of adaptive behavior
Anxiety is experienced by nearly everyone, and is not a mental disorder unless _____.
its chronic intensity disrupts your life