The part of the brain that regulates basic functions like heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, sneezing. Connects the brain to the spinal cord. Autonomic reflex center for maintaining body homeostatis; adjusts force and rate of heart contraction, adjusts blood vessel diameter for bp, generate respiratory rhythm, rate and depth of breathing (w/pons), regulate vomiting, hiccuping, swallowing, coughing, sneezing.
The part of the brain where the optic nerves cross., the point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain
The lobe of the cortex that allows us to plan, create abstract thought, and contains much of our personality. Controls most voluntary movement and contains the Precentral gyrus., associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving, part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for voluntary movement; it is also important for attention, goal-directed behavior, and appropriate emotional experiences
Structure that controls basic life functions and includes the medulla, pons, and midbrain., The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
The part of the brain that processes touch sensation and is part of the parietal lobe. Also called the somatosensory cortex.
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
Coordinates eye movements and balance.
Helps us to perform and modulate voluntary motor skills., part of the brain that coordinates balance, movement, reflexes,
Part of the brain involved with regulating many aspects of our emotional lives such as anger, sex, thirst, hunger, regulates body temperature, a homeostatic control center, it controls the pituitary gland and serves as a biological clock.
This lobe is important for integrating senses, processing visual-spatial information and for speech and number recognition.
Contains the post-central gyrus which detects and locates all touch sensations on our body.
Portion of the frontal lobe that is the starting point for all voluntary movements.
The lobe at the back of the brain and contains the major processing and interpreting areas for our vision.
Helps to maintain posture and is also involved in sensory analysis of hearing input.
It is also important for sleep patterns and levels of consciousness.
Connects the cerebellum to the cerbral cortex.
The lobe responsible for processing hearing information.
Wernicke's area, a location in this lobe, is crucial to our ability to interpret both written and spoken language.
The primarily a sensory integration center.
All the senses, except smell send connections through this structure before they reach the cortex to be analyzed.
The anterior portion of the thalamus is involved with memory, motivation, and sleeping cycles.
An important area for the formation of speech in the Frontal lobe.
Convoluted portion of the brain that is divided into four lobes.
It is strongly involved with memory, particularly changing short-term to long-term memory and memories for places.
This structure of the brain is associated strongly with fear responses and emotions.
When removed, things that would normally create fearful responses in organisms no longer create the same effect.
An area in the Temporal lobe that is crucial to our ability to interpret both written and spoken language.
A portion of the cortex that helps associate memories with "triggers" such as smells or pain.
Also seems to help focus attention on emotionally charged events.
From an emotional standpoint are very important for the "reward" system of the brain that gives a sense of pleasure.
Consists of the diencephalon, including the thalmus, optic chiasm, and hypothalmus., Top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
The outermost meninges covering the brain; composed of tough fibrous connective tissue; its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull.
The innermost meninges covering the brain; delicate and highly vascular.
Structure that forms the cerebrospinal fluid.
Folds or bumps on the surface of the cerebrum
Shallow fissures (grooves) that divide the brain and increase surface area
Associated with emotions (fear and aggression) and drives (hunger, thirst, and sex) and includes the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Cingulate Gyrus.
Keeps the person alive. Breathing, heart, coughing, vomiting...
Coordination, posture, motor memory, movement, rote learning
Sends signals around the brain. Essential in focusing attention
Controls body temperature, appetite and signalling hormones. Hormones are the body's "messengers."
Releases melatonin - the sleep hormone
Connects the left & right hemispheres.
Makes new memories and direction-finding
Basic emotion centre. Freeze, Fight or Flight
White matter. Billions of insulated neurons that 'wire' up the brain
Billions of cell bodies and dendrites for thinking
name the five brain lobes
frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, insula
define: neural network
cortical areas linked by axons. local areas perform part of global function. all linked areas work together as a network.
ex. of a neural network -- Language
primary auditory cortex (sensory input, hearing) --> Wernicke's area (comprehension) --> Broca's area (plan speech) --> primary motor cortex (motor output, speech)
functions w/ Frontal Lobe
decision-making, planning, judgment, inhibition of emotional response, complex social behaviors. Critical for planning and execution of Movement.
functions w/ Parietal Lobe
proprioreception, sense of self in relation to environment, selective Visual attention.
possible symptoms of damage to parietal lobe
serious distortions in one's sense of size, shape, placement in space. vertigo. Stimulation may cause "out of body" sensation.
function w/ Temporal Lobe
object recognition, facial recognition, hearing (Wernicke's, primary auditory cortex), memory (hippocampus)
function w/ Insula
internal sensory infor, pain, temperature, threatening stimuli. Links to frontal lobe and helps inform decision-making (gut feelings).
precentral gyrus (motor), postcentral gyrus (sensory). Discovered by Penfield, electrically stimulating brains of patients w/ intractable epileptic seizures
fibrous bridge across brain hemsipheres.
bases on cytoarchitecture, w/ functional distinctions as well. 52 distinct regions.
horizontal organization of neocortex
Six layers. Layers 2,3: send info to other cortical areas. Layer 4 receives input. Layers 5,6: axons descend to subcortical areas, including thalamus (backpropogation?)
vertical organization of neocortex
individual columns of ~120 neurons each. Each column functionally discrete and responds to very specific stimulus.
organization of Primary sensory areas
columns organized by sensory properties (eg, line orientation, frequency)
organization of Association areas
columns organized by complex information from other cortical areas (eg, visual, somatosensory, auditory)
superior temporal gyrus. Auditory/language comprehension.
Auditory and language areas of frontal lobe
Broca's area (area 44). Planning & motor execution of language. Syntax.
Auditory and language areas of temporal lobe
Primary auditory cortex. Heschel's gyrus (areas 41-42), Wernicke's area (area 22), Planum temporale
brain activity high in Wernicke's, temporal cortex
brain activity high in occipital cortex (visual)
brain activity high in pre-central gyrus (motor strip)
brain activity high in Broca's area, SMA (supplementary motor area)
damage to cerebellum causes
ataxia - difficulty maintaining balance
brainstem responsible for
respiration, heart rate, vital functions, swallowing.
sections of brainstem
midbrain, pons, medulla
brainstem important for
sensory and motor processes (esp visuomotor, auditory, vestibular); Sensation and motor control of face, mouth, throat, respiration, heart rate (cranial nerves III-XII attach). Sensory tracts from spinal cord to the cortex & cerebellum. Motor tracts from cortex and cerebellum to spinal cord. Nuclei important for maintaining alertness.
hypothalamus and thalamus, and pineal gland
transmits input to cortex. It is another basal ganglia. Sits on top of brainstem.
Basic drives, ANS integration, controls hormone release from pituitary gland.
several nuclei important for motor control and movement. Includes substantia nigra (DA release), thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate. Damage to any of these result in movement disorder.
several interconnected and cortical and subcortical structures important for emotional processing (eg, motivation, fear), learning and memory. Includes amygdala (fear, mental state), hippocampus (memory), cingulate gyrus (cognitive flexibility), nucleus accumbens (pleasure, responding to reward)
key role in movement and balance.
blood supply to brain
ACA: anterior cerebral artery, MCA: middle cerebral artery, PCA: posterior cerebral artery, Circle of Willis: cranial circle of arteries
supplies inferior frontal lobe, medical frontal and parietal lobes
ACA: anterior cerebral artery
supplies most of the cortex! Damage to left MCA often results in aphasia.
MCA: middle cerebral artery
supplies inferior temporal and occipital lobes
PCA: posterior cerebral artery
(mostly) surrounds base of brain, and helps protect the brain. All cerebral arteries branch from here.
Circle of Willis
problem solving, reasoning, decision making, creativity-top left
Frontal Lobe of Cerebrum
controls all glands. influence growth metabolism and maturation-2nd left
sensory center for hearing, production/comprehension of speech-3rd left
Temporal Lobe of Cerebrum
regulating sleep cycles-4th left
control of respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, other bodily functions-bottom left
bodily sensations/spatial relationships-top right
Parietal Lobe of Cerebrum
communication between hemispheres-2nd right
visual center of brain-3rd right
Occipital Lobe of Cerebrum
complex voluntary muscular movement, maintain posture and balance-4th right
reflexes, communicates info between brain and peripheral nervous system-bottom right
innitiates eating,drinking,sexual behavior, stress-Limbic System center
evaluates info from immediate environment-Limbic System center
memory process-Limbic center
inhibit agression and regulates sexual behavior-Limbic center