Process of chemically treating the dead human body to temporarily disinfect, preserve, and restore an acceptable physical appearance.
The process of completely removing or destroying all life-forms, endospores, or their products on or in a substance.
The destruction of vegetative pathogens by chemical or physical means by applying the disinfectant to an inanimate object.
The process by which microbial growth is inhibited on living tissue to prevent infection. Destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue.
Manual process by which microorganisms are removed from a surface.
Thermal death point
Lowest temperature at which all microorganisms are killed in 10 minutes.
Thermal death time
Minimum time it takes to kill all microorganisms present.
Decimal reduction time
Time in minutes it takes to kill 90% of the present microorganisms.
Reduction of waste to a more manageable quantity and form, ashes. Both the vegetative bacteria and the bacterial endospore are inactivated during incineration.
Human remains are placed in a retort, and a temperature of about 1600 degrees F (871 degrees C) is maintained until the remains have undergone complete combustion.
Kills microorganisms by coagulating the proteins they contain and breaking hydrogen bonds within the microorganisms.
The bacterium that causes tetanus (lockjaw).
This enzyme breaks down red blood cells and induces some of the symptoms of gas gangrene. Tissue gas-producing anaerobic bacillus is responsible for true tissue gas (postmortem only).
Items are placed in free-flowing steam for 30 minutes on successive days.
Steam under pressure
The most effective means of controlling microbial growth because pressure, temperature, and length of exposure can be controlled.
Ultraviolet (UV) light
A form of nonionizing radiation that can effectively control the growth of microorganisms placed directly in its path.
Agents that kill bacterial and mold spores, can also be used during the process of terminal disinfection of embalming instruments and equipment.
Kills a variety of different types of microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores.
Kills bacteria but not necessarily their spores.
Kills both fungi and their spores.
Kills larvae, which are the wormlike forms of newly hatched insects.
The six elements found in the next to the last column on the far right side of the periodic table. Fluorine, chlorine, bromine,and iodine.
Disinfects water supply, sewage, pools, bedpans, toilets, and floors.
A solution of iodine and alcohol that is primarily used as an antiseptic. It does not kill endospores.
Compound of iodine and a surfactant such as a detergent that can slowly release the free iodine.
Widely used disinfectants that control microbial growth by denaturing proteins and by dissolving lipids in the cell membrane of microorganisms.
Group of organic compunds that control microbial growth by reacting with the proteins in microorganisms and altering their chemical structure.
37% formaldehyde by mass and 40% by volume used as a disinfectant.
An effective disinfectant and is actually a cold chemical sterilant when activated in a 2 percent solution, which is germicidal in 10 minutes and kills endospores in 3 to 12 hours.
Joseph Lister (1827-1912) first used phenol as a disinfectant. Phenol aka carbolic acid.
Commonly used in mortuary disinfectants because they work well in the presence of other organic compounds.
Only available with a prescription, but it is an ingredient in several commercial embalming chemicals. About 450 times more effective as a germicide than phenol.
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics that damage cellular membranes and denature microbial proteins. A group of disinfectants that are deactivated in the presence of soap and includes benzalkonium chloride.
Condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood; commonly known as blood poisoning.
A foreign substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies that interact specifically with it.
A living organism or an object that is capable of transmitting infections by carrying the disease agent on its external body part or surface.
Causative agent of leptospirosis.
Bacterial toxin confined within the body of a bacterium freed only when the bacterium is broken down; found only in gram negative bacteria.
The natural habitat of a disease-causing organism.
The ability of an organism to defend itself against infection and disease; the sum total of body mechanisms that interpose barriers to the progress of invasion, multiplication of infectious agents, or damage by their toxic products.
Dilution or weakening of the virulence of a microorganism, reducing or abolishing pathogenicity.
An original infection from which a second one originates.
Real or genuine disease producing organism.
The state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease.
A microorganism capable of producing disease.
Resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drug or drugs.
Infection caused by germs lodging and multiplying at one point in a tissue and remaining there.
A toxin, generally a protein, produced by a microorganism and excreted into its surrounding medium.
The act of introducing disease germs or infectious material into an area or substance.
Causative agent of tularemia (rabbit fever).
Causative agent of cholera. The disease is characterized by a profuse and watery diarrhea.
Blood distribution throughout the body of poisonous products of bacteria growing in a focal or local site, thus producing generalized symptoms.
Causative agent of Q fever.
An infection that becomes systemic.
Guidelines designed to protect workers with occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
Any inanimate object to which infectious material adheres and can be transmitted.
The organism from which a microorganism obtains nourishment.
An organism that exists as part of the normal flora but that can become pathogenic under certain conditions.
Infection caused by a different organism than the one causing the primary infection.
Causative agent of typhus fever. Reservoir. Rodents. Transmission. Flea bite.
An infection in which organisms are orginally confined to one area but enter the blood or lymph vessel and spread to other parts of the body.
A poisonous substance of plant, animal, bacterial, or fungal origin.
Glycoprotein substances developed in response to and interacting specifically with an antigen; also known as immunoglobulins.
Causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Reservoir. Rodents. Transmission. Tick bite.
An arthropod vector in which the disease-causing organism multiplies or develops within the arthropod prior to becoming infective for a susceptible individual.
Causative agent of plague. Reservoir. Rodents. Transmission. Flea bites.
A topical antiseptic used on the skin before surgery, in nasal sprays, and as a preservative in eye drops.
Causative agent of salmonellosis.
Causative agent of whooping cough.
Causative agent of infections in burns.
A bacterial enzyme that acts with the oils and fats secreted by the sebaceous glands allowing the bacteria to colonize in the skin.
A bacterial enzyme that causes blood to clot by converting fibrinogen into fibrin.
Causative agent of Legionnaire's disease.
A bacterial enzyme that penetrates the body's connective tissues, permitting the easy spread of infection throughout the body.
Causative agent of intestinal ulcers.
An anthrax lesion characterized by a central mass of necrotic tissue surrounded by inflammatory vesicles.
Causative agent of typhoid fever.
Causative agent of otitis media (about 35% of cases)
Causative agent of tuberculosis.
Causative agent of listeriosis.
Causative agent of botulism.
Causative agent of stomach ulcers.
Causative agent of bacillary dysentery.
Causative agent of influenzal meningitis.
Causative agent of toxic shock syndrome.
Causative agent of Mycobacterium Avium Complex.
Causative agent of meningitis in newborns.
Causative agent of syphilis.
Causative agent of Lyme disease.
Causative agent of nosocomial respiratory infections.
An inflamed, swollen, or enlarged lymph mode exhibiting suppuration, occurring commonly after infective disease due to absorption of infected material.
Causative agent of gonorrhea.
Causative agent of diphtheria.
Causative agent of leptospirosis.
Causative agent of scarlet fever.
The state or condition in which the body or a part of the body is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injurious effects.
Infections caused by bacteria that are normally nonpathogenic and that normally inhabit the digestive tract.
Infections caused by organisms not present in the body.
Those diseases that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from on individual to another.
Occuring continuously in a particular region but usually have a low mortality.
Occuring occasionally or in scattered instances within a geographic region.
Diseases that attack many people at the same time in the same geographic region.
Diseases affecting the majority of the population of a large region or are epidemic at the same time in many different parts of the world.
Diseases that don't spread from one person to another.
A localized infection characterized by a collection of pus in any part of the body that results from disinegration or displacement of tissue.
An infection caused by two or more organisms.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
The presence of bacteria in the blood.
An enzyme capable of digesting fibrin threads in blood.
A thick-walled cell produced by a bacterium to enable it to survive unfavorable environmental conditions.
A derivative of the botulin toxin produced C. botulinum. Injected directly into facial lines or other muscles (cramps), where it causes the muscles to relax. Gives relief for months.
Causative agent,the fungus Coccidioides immitis. Endemic to the hot, dry, dusty areas of the Western Hemisphere.
Diseases that are communicable from animals or animal products.
The process by which the epithelial layer of the skin continuously dies, sloughs off, and is replaced with new cells.
Causative agent of meningococcal meningitis.
Causative agent of enteroinvasive E. coli or enterohemorrhagic E. coli
Natural active immunity
Developing a disease and recovering from it.
Natural passive immunity
The result of placental transfer of antibodies in the uterus, or from the transfer of antibodies in the mother's first breast milk, which is known as colostrum.
A febrile disease of the blood characterized by chills and fever. It is caused by a protozoan and spread by Anopheles mosquito bite, which is a biological vector.
Causative agent of candidiasis
Causative agent of aspergillosis
Jock itch (Tinea cruris)
Causative agent of coccidiodomycosis
A blood-sucking fly that is found only in Africa and spreads trypanosomes that cause African sleeping disease
Fungi that are encapsulated and are unicellular
Causative agent of giardiasis
Causative agent of cryptosporidiosis
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
Causative agent of East African sleeping sickness
Causative agent of fungal meningitis
Fungi that alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms
Fungi that are filamentous and multicellular
A group of often filamentous unicellular and multicellular organisms lacking chlorophyll that usually bear spores
Causative agent of amebic dysentery (amebiasis)
Athlete's foot (Tinea pedis)
Scalp ringworm (Tinea capitis)
Causative agent of malaria
Causative agent of histoplasmosis (cave disease; spelunker's disease; Darling's disease; reticuloendothelial Cytomycosis)
Causative agent of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (pneumocystosis)
Causative agent of toxoplasmosis
A wide variety of fungi that can infect the integumentary system
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
Causative agent of West African sleeping sickness.
A respiratory disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci
Once thought to be viruses, these are actually the smallest free-living organisms in nature
Causative agent of trachoma of the eye and causative agent of parrot fever.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
A disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii
A disease caused by Rickettsia prowazekii
Also known as primary atypical pneumonia
Short, nonmotile, gram-negative bacilli that are obligate intracellular pathogens.
Herpes simplex 2 virus
Causative agent of genital herpes; Sexually transmitted; Chronic painful blistering on genitals, flulike symptoms, fever, swollen glands
Also known as parrot fever or as ornithosis
Unlike other rickettsial infections, no rash is present in this disease
Bacteria that grow only intracellularly
A chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis that is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world
Causative agent of chlamydial pneumonia
Causative agent of Ebola hemmorrhagic fever; Body fluid contact; Acute fever, headache, arthritis, muscle pain, sore throat, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, rash, red eyes, hiccups, internal and external bleeding
Viral infections of the skin
Mad Cow disease
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is commonly known as this
Poliomyelitis (polio); Fecal-oral route, contaminated water; Sore throat, fever, nausea, vomiting, meningitis, paralysis
Herpes simplex 1 virus
Causative agent of cold cores; Oral or respiratory route; Cold sore lesion on mouth
An inflammatory disorder of the liver caused by a virus (hepatitis viruses A, B, and C); Hepatitis B is spread through body fluid contact, it can lead to either a chronic liver disease or death
A genetic disorder within families that results from a mutation of the normal prion protein in the brain
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
A repiratory illness that has recently been reported in Asia, North America, and Europe
Chicken pox (varicella virus); Inhalation of respiratory droplets; Lesions of the face, throat, lower back, chest, and shoulders that fill with pus and dry, forming crusting; Causative agent of shingles (zoster virus); Reactivation of varicella virus; Blistering of the waist, face, chest, and back that follows the sensory nerve paths and can lead to paralysis
Causative agent of poliomyelitis
Causative agent of hydrophobia; Animal bite or inhalation of aerosolized virus; Encephalitis, inability to swallow, paralysis
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
A progressive disease which causes spongiform-porous, like a sponge-degeneration of the brain believed to be caused by a prion.
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
An infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in which the virus destroys the immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to opportunistic infections and malignancies.
Viral infections of the respiratory tract
More than 200 different viruses are known to cause the symptoms of this disease
Congenital rubella syndrome
A form of birth defect that occurs when the mother becomes infected with the rubella virus in her first trimester
An acute, neurotropic, infectious disease caused by a rhabdovirus known as the rabies virus
A disease of sheep and goats that causes them to rub sores on their bodies
Causative agent of German measles; Inhalation of respiratory droplets; Red spots and fever that can lead to encephalitis
Causative agent of the flu; Inhalation of respiratory droplets; Fever, chills, headache, cough, sore throat, extreme fatigue
Hepatitis A virus
Causative agent of infectious hepatitis; Fecal-oral route or ingestion of contaminated water or food; Anorexia, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, fever, jaundice, chills
Hepatitis B virus
Causative agent of serum hepatitis; Contaminated body fluids; Chronic or fatal, causing scarring and hardening of the liver, jaundice, liver cancer, or liver failure
An infectious inflammatory disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus
Causative agent of smallpox; Respiratory route; Characteristic pox lesions of the skin and organs
Viral infections of the central nervous system
Causative agent of measles; Inhalation of respiratory droplets; Red spots on face, trunk, and extremities that can lead to encephalitis; symptoms are more severe than in German measles
Causative agent of mononucleosis (kissing disease; college disease); Transfer of saliva; Infection of the parotid salivary glands, fever, sore throat, fatigue
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Causative agent of AIDS; Sexually transmitted, sharing IV drug needles; Failure of immune system
Causative agent of epidemic parotitis; Inhalation of respiratory droplets; Swelling of parotid salivary glands, fever, painful swallowing, orchitis, meningitis, pancreatitis, inflammation of ovaries
Incusion disease; Contact with body secreations such as saliva, urine, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk; Fetal birth defects; in adults symptoms sometimes include prolonged fever and mild hepatitis
Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), also known as nonspecific urethritis (NSU), refers to any inflammation of the urethra not caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Human papilloma virus (HPV)
Salmonella food poisoning (Salmonellosis)
A prion disease in isolated New Guinea tribes. Transmitted by contact with brain and tissue of dead victims, now declining as practices that led to this contact decline.
Bacterium has one flagellum
Bacterium has one flagellum at either end of its cell
Bacterium has two or more flagella on either end of its cell
Bacterium has flagella distributed over its entire cell
Artificial active immunity
The result of a vaccination
Artificial passive immunity
The result of the injection of antibodies in the form of immune serums.
Relative power and degree of pathogenicity possessed by organisms to produce disease
This infection is caused by bacterial contaminated water, eardrum puncture, or skull fracture resulting in ear ache caused by pus behind the ear drum
Treatment of a bacterium which ends in killing the organism.
Treatment of a bacterium which hinders the organism's ability to grow without necessarily killing it.
Obligate (strict) aerobes
Can only live in the presence of oxygen because they need oxygen to metabolize sugars
Obligate (strict) anaerobes
Microbes that can only survive in an environment devoid of oxygen. i.e., Listeria, Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens
Require little free oxygen (2% to 10%)
Capable of adjusting to changes in oxygen levels in their environment.
Can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen
Deadly flesh eating leishmania parasites. Can be deadly if spreads to face by obstruction of breathing and eating. Found in Asia, Europe and South America. Biological vector Sand Fly.
An abscess due to pyogenic infection of a sweat gland or hair follicle
Several communicating boils of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with the production and discharge of pus and dead tissue
Chlamydia trachomatis; Sexual contact; 75% of female and 50% of male cases are asymptomatic; blister appears on genitals, rupture and painlessly heal; enlargemant of regional lymph nodes with pus
St. Vitus' dance
In approximately 10% of the cases of rheumatic fever, a condition known as Sydenham's chorea develops. Characterized by purposeless, involuntary movements during waking hours.
Meningitis in newborns
Ingestion of raw milk. Lethargy, jaundice, respiratory distress, shock, pneumonia, anorexia
Inflammation of the testicles
Inflammation of the ovaries
A common skin and blood vessel cancer found in cases of HIV infection
No nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles (cell components that perform particular functions). DNA in these cells usually forms a single chromosome, which floats within the cytoplasm.
Cells contain membrane-bound intracellular organelles, including a nucleus. The DNA within these is organized into chromosomes.
Seeks to organize living things into groups based on morphology, or genetics.
Author of Systema Nature in 1735
Kingdom Protista; Kingdom Fungi; Kingdom Animalia; Kingdom Plantae
The ability of a cell to take in substances from its environment
Long filamentous structures
One-celled organisms of the kingdom Protista; most are unicellular although some are colonial
Encephalitis; Mosquito bite; Chills, fever, headache, confusion, coma
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; Inhalation of virus from infected rodents; Fatigue, fever, muscle aches, headache, dizziness, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coughing, dyspnea
Hepatitis C virus
Non-A, Non-B hepatitis (NANB) Blood transfusion; Similar to hepatitis B
West Nile virus
West Nile encephalitis; Mosquito bite; Inflammation of nervous system
Inflamation of the brain
Inflammation of the membranes around the brain and the spinal cord
Inflamation of the brain and the membrane surrounding it
What is the study of those life forms that require the aid of a microscope to be seen ?
What is the science of structure and form without regard to function ?
Bacteria typically reproduce by a process called:
The process of completely removing or destroying all microorganisms on a substance by exposure to chemical or physical agents, exposure to ionizing radiation, or by filtering gas or liquids through porous materials that remove microorganisms called:
The state or condition in which the body, or part of it, is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injuries effects is called:
A substance that induces the formation of antidodies that interact specifically with it is a(n):
obligate anaerobes with endospores C. botulinium, C. tetani and C. perfringens - flaccid paralysis; the genus of the organism with the pathogenicity of tetanus or lockjaw:
certain types of cells that have no walls or have very little wall material; their plasma membranes are unique among bacteria in having lipids called sterols, which are thought to help protect them from lysis (rupture). The causative organism in primary atypical pneumonia is:
pathogen, obligate intracellular parasite. (has to live inside a host cell) animal bite. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Arthropod borne infection. They are:
a sexually transmitted disease, the most common in developed countries, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Often producing no symptoms, it can cause infertility, chronic pain, or a tubal pregnancy if left untreated.
disease-causing substance too small to be seen through a microscope
a disease that results from an infection by the protozoan parasite Giardia Intestinalis, caused by drinking water that is either not filtered or not chlorinated. The disorder is more prevalent in children than in adults and is characterized by abdominal discomfort, nausea, and alternating constipation and diarrhea.
- Fecal/oral transmittion by ingestion of mature cysts
- Cysts turn into trophpzoites in GI (move by pseudopodia)
- Replicate by binary fission
- Hematophagous (diagnostic)
- Cysts are excreted back into environment
- Can be asymptomatic
- Can cause GI issues (bloody diarrhea, dysenteyr, colitis, etc)
- Can infect extra-intestinal sites (liver, lungs, brain)
infestation by trichina larvae that are transmitted by eating inadequately cooked meat (especially pork)
Viruses are unaffected by the action of:
An organism that feeds on dead organic matter only is a:
active immunity will be established
Which of the following is true concerning a child who has been diagnosed with Rubeola ?
nose and mouth
Pneumococci usually leaves the body through the
The vagina is more acidic and supports the growth of the fungi that causes yeast infections
Why do yeast infections occur more frequently in the vagina than other areas of the body ?
Which of the following types of microorganisms would be most likely to survive in the dry air of the American Southwest ?
Which of the following are bacteria that perfer moderate temperatures and grow best between 25 degress C and 40 degress C (77 to 104 degress F) ?
Which of the following terms describes the need for viruses, viroids, and prions to live only in a host cell due to thier lack of internal structures that produce energy or utilize nutrients ?
Which of the following refers to organisms that only survive on dead or decaying organic matter ?
Two different species live in close association to the mutual benefit of each other
The inhibition of one microorganism's growth by the presence of another
Microorganisms that can only live in the presence of oxygen
Bacteria that require complex organic nutrients from a carbon source to grow and develop
Self-nourishing bacteria capable of growing in the absence of organic compounds
They have a cell wall composed of few lipids; They are more permeable to basic dyes; They are killed easily by penicillin and sulfonamide drugs
Which of the following is a sticky, gelatinous coating that surrounds the cell wall of prokaryotic cells ?
Bacteria shaped like a sphere are known as which of the following ?
Which of the following refers to bacteria with a spiral or helical shape ?
bacteria shaped like a rod
Long, whiplike, filament-containing appendages that propel bacteria
Bacteria that are surrounded by an axial filament and have a shape similar to a flexible corkscrew
An organized and firmly attached outer coating on some prokaryotic cells
Quaternary Ammonium compounds
Which of the following types of disinfectants includes benzalkonium chloride ? (a group of disinfectants that are deactivated in the presence of soap)
Which of the following physical methods of sterilization incorporates both free-flowing steam and pressure
First to use phenol as a treatment for wound infections
Which of the following is a chemical enzyme in the body that uses water to break down the peptidoglycan layer in prokaryotic pathogens ?
Skin and mucous membranes
Which of the following portals of exit and entry allow the spread of pathogens causing tetanus, malaria, African sleeping sickness, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, dysentery, rabies, typhus fever, and bubonic plague ?
Which of the following is a carrier, usually an insect or other arthropod, that transmits the causative organisms of disease from infected to noninfected individuals
A chancre appears on the genitals
Which of the following is characteristic of the primary stage of syphilis ?
Which of the following diseases is characterized by a bull's-eye rash ?
Which of the following diseases is caused by a spirochete ?
Which of the following diseases is characterized by sore throat, fever, fatigue, swelling of the neck, and a tough grayish pseudomembrane in the throat ?
Endocarditis, urinary infections, and respiratory illness after contact with infected sheep
Corynebacteria have been shown to cause which of the following types of infections in humans ?
Rocky mountain spotted fever
Which of the following mircoorganisms has a characteristic fried-egg appearance ?
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Which of the following diseases is characterized by the presence of a measles-like rash on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet ?
In which of the following diseases might the tongue be covered with a white fur, or discolored black and rolled up in the back of the mouth ?
Which of the following microorganisms undergoes both an infectious stage of growth and a noninfectious stage of growth ?
Which of the following microorganisms is the smallest free-living organism in nature ?
Herpes simplex 1 virus
Viruses that affect organs
viral disease that affects the peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves; also called herpes zoster
The first vaccine was developed by Edward Jenner, and it was a vaccine for which of the following ?
Orchitis and sterility can result from which of the following diseases ?
Which of the following types of hepatitis is spread through contact with blood and body fluids ?
East African sleeping disease
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
Malaria is spread through which of the following vectors ?
Which of the following refers to fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails ?
Which of the following diseases is spread through handling contaminated cat feces ?
East and West African sleeping disease (Protozoan Glosssina, tsetse fly )
Which of the following microorganisms causes African trypanosomiasis and is spread by the tsetse fly ?
A diarrheal illness caused by that parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia and characterized by intestinal cramping and diarrhea; The most commonly identified waterborne illness in the United States ?
A condition that presents itself after birth
hyperfunction of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland after ossification has been completed
a disease with a more or less rapid onset and short duration
a rare endocrine disorder, occurring when the adrenal glands fail to produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone
A fibrous band holding parts together that are normally separated resulting during the healing process after wounds
having a hypersensitivity to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction
Congenital absence of one or more limbs
A waxy, translucent, complex proteins that resembles starch. Amyloid degeneration is a form of cellular degeneration present in diseases like Alzheimer's disease
Generalized massive edema in subcutaneous tissue
A decrease in the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, or both
A localized dilation (abnormal enlargement or bulging) of a blood vessel
Chest pain due to lack of oxygenation of the heart muscle resulting from inadequate blood flow
failure of a tissue or an organ to develop normally due to an absence of cells
loss of the normal beating rhythm of the heart
disease of the arteries resulting in thickening and the loss of elasticity
accumulation of free serous fluid in the abdominal cavity
the inability to take in necessary amounts of oxygen
a sometimes chronic condition in which the bronchi are hypersensitive to stimuli
a collapsed lung or the failure of the lung of a fetus to expand fully at birth. Technically, it is the loss of lung volume due to inadequate expansion of airspaces, which results in inadequate oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange within the lungs
the most common form of arteriosclerosis, marked by cholesterol, lipid, and calcium deposits in the walls of arteries
a wasting decrease in size of an organ or tissue
the process by which an organism digests its own cells through enzymes that are naturally present in the cell or in surrounding tissues; this normally occurs after the cell or tissue has died
a postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause od death or pathological condition. Also known as a necropsy
a prokaryotic one-celled microorganism of the kingdom monera, existing as free-living organisms or as parasites, multiplying by binary fission, and having a large range of biochemical properties
a visible group of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism
science that studies bacteria
not recurrent or progressive; nonmalignant
a method of asexual reproduction in bacteria in which cells split into two parts, each of which develops into a complete individual
Inflammation of the bursae in certain joints of the body
a state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting of the body. It may occur in many chronic diseases, malignancies, and infections
the depositing of calcium salts, magnesium, iron, and other minerals within the cells
cheeselike, caseous necrosis is characterized by pink areas of necrotic tissue surrounded by inflammatory granules
cause of death
any injury or disease that produces a physiological derangement in the body that results in the death of an individual.
formation of cavities in an organ or tissue, frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis
a hard, primary ulcer due to syphilis infection appearing approximately two to three weeks after infection
the movement of white blood cells to an area of inflammation in response to the release of chemical mediators by neutrophils, monocytes, and injured tissues
a disease with a more or less slow onset and long duration
congenitally malformed palate with a fissure along the midline
study of disease performed in the laboratory by means of body secretions, excretions, and other body fluids
a surgical procedure to create an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its skin surface. A colostomy is established in cases of distal obstruction; inflammatory process, including perforation; and when the distal colon or rectum is surgically resected
The symbiotic relationship of two organisms of different species in which one organism gains some benefit such as protection or nourishment
unfavorable conditions arising during the course of disease
a traumatic head injury of sufficient force to bruise the brain, which often involves the surface of the brain and can cause an extravasation of blood without rupture of the meninges. It can result in temporary loss of consciousness, paralysis, vomiting, and seizures
condition existing at the time of birth or shortly thereafter
accumulation of an excess of blood or tissue fluid in a body part.
a bruise, often accompanied by swelling
abnormal, violent, and involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the muscles
a hypothyroid condition of infants and children in which the thyroid gland does not secrete sufficient quantities of thyroid hormones
failure of the testis to descend from its intra-abdominal location into the scrotum; also known as cryptorchidism
an iatrogenic disorder of the adrenal glands due to chronic glucocorticoid hormone therapy
bluish discoloration of the skin or mucous membrane due to lack of oxygen
a sac within or on the body surface containing air or fluid
a pressure sore, a bedsore
a lack of dietary metabolic substance that can lead to disease
the deterioration of tissues with corresponding functional impairment as a result of disease or injury
loss of moisture from body tissue that may occur antemortem or postmortem
a progressive, irreversible decline in mental function, marked by memory impairment and, often, deficits in reasoning, judgment, abstract thought, registration, comprehension, learning, task execution, and use of language
term denoting the naming of the disease or syndrome; the recognition of the nature of a disease
a processes of diffusing blood across a semipermeable membrane to remove toxic materials and to maintain fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in cases of impaired kidney function or absence of kidneys
The pathological condition of the heart being enlarged due to a stretching of the muscle fibers, occurring normally, artificially, or as a result of disease
a double bacillus, two being linked end to end to each other.
any of various spherical bacteria appearing in pairs
a chemical or physical agent that kills disease causing microorganisms; generally used on inanimate objects
dry gangrene (ischemic necrosis)
condition that results when the body that dies had little blood and remains aseptic; occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed
abnormal development of tissue
shortness of breath
small, nonelevated hemorrhagic patch; extravasation of blood into a tissue. Scientific name for a common bruise
the occurrence of seizures during pregnancy, which can't be attributed to another cause, after the 20th week of gestation
the implantation of the fertilized ovum in a site other than the normal one in the uterine cavity
a general term for a variety of inflammatory skin conditions. It is characterized by dry, red, extremely itchy patches on the skin that may ooze an inflammatory exudate
abnormal accumulation of fluids in tissue or body cavities
the state of being extremely lean
sudden obstruction of a blood vessel by debris. Blood clots, cholesterol-containing plaques, masses of bacteria, cancer cells, amniotic fluid, fat from the marrow of broken bones, and injected substances (e.g., air bubbles or particulate matter) all may lodge in blood vessels and obstruct circulation
a mass of undissolved matter present in the bloodstream. Emboli may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Occlusions of the vessels from emboli usually result in the development of infarcts.
a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory system, characterized by the presence of air pockets at the terminal ends of the bronchioles
pus in the pleural cavity
inflammation of the heart valves or the lining of the heart
a condition, in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus, which is as the endometrium, grows in other areas of the body, such as the pelvic area, the surface of the uterus, the ovaries, the intestines, the rectum, or the bladder
infection of the endometrium, which is the lining of the uterus
a chronic neurogenic disease marked by sudden alterations in consciousness and frequently by convulsions. It is a recurrent degenerative disorder of the nervous system marked by repetitive abnormal electrical discharges within the brain as seizures
bleeding from the nose
an abnormally high red blood cell count
the study of the cause of disease
increased severity of a disease
loss of blood to the point where life can no longer be sustained
any fluid released from the body with a high concentration of protein, cells, or solid debris
term associated with fever
A quivering or spontaneous contraction of the individual cardiac cells
having rapid and severe onset, usually fatal
a condition or disease in which there are changes in physiologic activity, but no recognizable change in anatomy
a term used to refer to several types of necrosis
deals with the study of the widespread processes of disease such as inflammation, degeneration, necrosis or cellular death, repair, and so on without reference to particular organs or organ systems
enlargement of the dysfunctional thyroid gland, often due to iodine deficiency and not associated with inflammation or cancer
a form of arthritis due to a metabolic disorder resulting in the depositing of uric acid in the joints
a distinct type of hyperthyroidism caused by an autoimmune attack on the thyroid gland
study of the changes in structure of the body as a result of disease that are readily seen with the unaided eye
an infectious lesion consisting of a central necrotic mass surrounded by an inflammatory zone and fibrous deterioration of the tissues due to tertiary syphilis
vomiting of blood
a swelling consisting of a mass of extravascular blood (usually clotted) confined to an organ, tissue, or space and caused by a break in a blood vessel
blood in the urine
a hereditary bleeding disorder marked by a deficiency of blood clotting proteins
coughing up blood in the sputum
escape of blood from the blood vascular system
being genetically transmitted from parent to offspring
abnormal protrusion of part of an organ through an opening in a wall that normally contains it
abnormal collection of fluid in any sacculated cavity in the body, especially the scrotum
excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain
distention of the pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys with urine as a result of obstruction
abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac that surrounds the heart
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
increase flow of blood in an area of the body.
due to an excess of arterial blood
due to an excess of venous blood
the increased size of an organ or part due to the excessive but regulated increase in the number of its cells
high blood pressure based on three readings spread out over several weeks in which blood pressure is higher than 140 millimeters of mercury systolic or 90 millimeters of mercury diastolic
hyper function of the thyroid gland
The enlargement of an organ or tissue due to the increase in size of cells composing it
underdevelopment of a tissue, or organ, of the body
body temperature below 80 degree F (27 degree C)
depletion of oxygen in the cells and tissues
resulting from the adverse activity of medical treatment
another name for jaundice
of unknown cause (e.g. sudden infant death syndrome)
plant life occurring or adapted for living in a specific environment
the formation of an area of necrosis in a tissue caused by obstruction in the artery supplying the area
the harboring of animal parasites, especially macroscopic forms, such as ticks or mosquitoes
the process of seepage or diffusion into tissue of substances that are not ordinarily present
a tissue reaction to irritation, infection, or injury marked by localized heat, swelling, redness, pain, and sometimes loss of function
a condition in which part of the intestine bulges through a weakened area in the muscles in the inguinal canal, which is located in the groin
state of being intoxicated, especially of being poisoned by a drug or toxic substance
extravasation of blood within the skull
the slipping of one part of the intestine into another part just below it; becoming ensheathed
reduction in arterial blood supply
condition characterized by excessive concentration of bilirubin in the skin and tissues and deposition of excessive bile pigment in the skin, cornea, body fluids, and mucous membranes with the resulting yellow appearance of the body.
inflammation of the larynx (voice box)
a circumscribed area of pathologically altered tissue; a single patch in a skin disease
cancer of the blood characterized by the appearance of great numbers of immature and abnormal white blood cells, 10 to 100 times that of the normal range
increase in the # of white blood cells in the body.
abnormal reduction in the # of white blood cells
a procedure during which a surgeon removes a lump and an area of healthy tissue around its edges from the breast
enlargement of the lymph nodes
an inflammatory disorder of the lymph vessels, characterized by local and systemic pain
malignancy of lymphoid tissue
a defect or deformity
concerning cancerous growths: growing worse, resisting treatment
manner of death
explanation of how the cause of death came about
the surgical removal of a portion of the breast or the entire breast
temperature above which bacterial growth will not take place
mechanism of death
the physiological derangement produced by the cause of death that results in death.
medicolegal (forensic) pathology
study of disease to ascertain cause and manner of death as related to a criminal investigation
black, tarry feces caused by the digestion of blood in the gastrointestinal tract; common in newborns
replacement of one type of tissue by a form that is not normally found there
the spread of cancer from its primary site to a distant location in the body
requiring little free oxygen
microscopic pathology (histopathology)
study of microscopic changes that cells, tissues, and organs undergo as a result of disease
temperature below which bacterial growth will not take place
moist (wet) gangrene
necrotic tissue that is wet as a result of inadequate venous drainage, accompanied by the invasion of saprophytic bacteria
relative incidence of a disease in the population or number of cases in a given time in a given population.
number of deaths in a given time or place or proportion of deaths to a population
the branch of science concerned with the study of fungi
the clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism that includes an infiltration of the skin by a thick, gelatinous substance formed from the bonding of water and mucopolysaccarides, which gives the skin a waxy or coarsened appearance
pathological death of a tissue while still part of the living organism
an abnormal mass of tissue exhibiting excessive and uncontrolled multiplication of cells
a colorless, odorless inert gas. _______ compounds are found in foods, organic materials, fertilizers, poisons, and explosives. Formaldehyde and ________ react to form urotropin, which neutralizes the effectiveness of formaldehyde as an embalming preservative for human remains
infection acquired in a hospital or other health care setting
a disease with an abnormally high rate of occurrence in members of a particular workforce
temperature at which organisms grow best
a condition or disease in which there is a change in anatomy
pressure that develops when two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane
a disease marked by softening of the bones due to faulty calcification in adulthood
Inflammation of bone and bone marrow
loss of bone mass that occurs throughout the skeleton, resulting in a predisposition to bone fracture
loss of purposeful muscle movement, usually as a result of neurological disease, drugs, or toxins
an interactive relationship between two organisms in which one is harmed and other benefits
the manner in which a disease develops
pathological anatomy (morbid anatomy)
study of structural changes in the body caused by disease
science that deals with the study of disease
inflammation of the membranes that surround the heart
a process in which phagocytes (I. e., neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages) engulf and destroy microorganisms, other foreign antigens, and cell debris.
congenital condition in which the proximal portions of the limbs are poorly developed or absent
study of changes in body function due to disease
coloration caused by either deposit or lack of coloring materials in tissues
an inflammatory condition of the pleurae that surrounds the lungs
infection of the lungs
a highly contagious infectious disease of the spinal cord cause by the poliovirus
a birth defect characterized by extra fingers or toes
an increase in total red blood cell mass
a growth or mass of tissue that protrudes from a mucous membrane
the number of cases of disease present in a specified population at a given time
a small proteinaceous infectious particle that is resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acids
prediction of the outcome of disease
inflammation of the prostate gland
a chronic, inflammatory skin disease, characterized by red, thickened areas with silvery scales, most often on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back.
bacteria that prefer cold, thriving at temperatures between 0 c and 25 c
condition in which spontaneous bleeding occurs in the subcutaneous tissues, causing the appearance of purple patches on the skin
forming or containing pus
protein rich fluid containing white blood cells, especially neutrophils, and cell debris produced during inflammation
a small elevation of the skin containing pus
reappearance of symptoms after a period of remission (abatement)
the replacement of damaged cells with identical cells
temporary cessation of symptoms of disease
physical or mechanical restoration of damaged or diseased tissue by growth of healthy new cells--not necessarily the same type-- or by surgery. The replacement of damaged tissue with fibrous connective tissue (scar tissue)
the termination of the inflammatory response with the affected part returning to its normal state.
a disease of infants and young children caused by deficiency of vitamin D and resulting in defective bone growth
inflammation of the fallopian tubes
organisms that only survive on dead or decaying organic matter
a developmental disorder of the spine in which the spinal column exhibits a lateral curvature
sudden, uncontrolled discharges of electrical activity in the brain, which may cause convulsions
objective disturbances produced by disease, observed by a physician, nurse, or other person (I. e., pulse, fever, heart rate)
deals with the specific features of disease in relation to particular organs or organ systems
congenital defect in which part of the vertebral column is absent or undergoes incomplete closure
an enlargement of the spleen beyond its normal size
gram positive, nonmotile bacteria that tend to aggregate in irregular, grapelike clusters
abnormal constriction of a channel or orifice
bacteria containing gram-negative rods that form a chainlike colony
gram-positive spherically shaped bacteria that occur in chains
strict (obligate) anaerobe
a microbe that can only survive in an environment without oxygen present
confusion or disorientation that increases in the afternoon or evening. It is common finding in patients with cognitive disorders and tends to improve when the patient is reassured and reoriented
study of surgical tissue specimens excised surgically in a major or minor operation
the living together in close association of different species
subjective disturbances caused by disease that are felt or experienced by the patient but are not directly measurable (example: pain, headache)
a set of sign and symptoms associated with a particular disease (e.g. down syndrome)
the harmonious action of two microorganisms producing an effect that neither could produce alone
Bacteria that thrive best at high temperatures, between 40 C and 70 C
An abnormal decrease in the number of platelets that inhibit blood clotting
the formation or presence of an attached blood clot
a blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel or a cavity of the heart
An inflammation of the tonsils caused by an infection
the process or event leading to an injury or wound
implantation and development of the fertilized ovum in a uterine tube
an open sore or lesion of skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue
a toxic condition caused by retention in the blood of nitrogenous waste products normally excreted in the urine
a twisting of the bowel on itself due to a prolapsed mesentery, causing obstruction
an idiopathic disorder in which the melanocytes stop producing pigment and are destroyed
blisterlike elevation of skin containing serous fluid
the study of viruses and viral diseases
an increase in the diameter of a vessel
a decrease in the diameter of a vessel
valvular insufficiency (incompetence)
failure of a heart valve to close tightly, thus allowing regurgitation of blood
Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS)
a cousin of the coronavirus that caused a deadly outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002 and 2003, can cause coughing, fever, and pneumonia
as your immune system detects an invading bug, different genes are activated to fend off a viral infection than to fight a bacterial or fungal one. And they form distinct patterns of RNA & proteins
drugs that don't work if a virus is the real culprit
anti-malaria drug developed by US army in the 1970s and has been taken by millions of travelers and people in the military. side effects are as follows: dizziness, loss of balance, ringing in the ears, anxiety, depression, and hallucinations.
a mosquito-borne disease that international officials say kills about 600,000 people a year
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
reported microorganisms in rainwater, lake water, on the surface of human teeth, in the gut of horseflies, and in the feces of human diarrhea
established the causation of disease by microorganisms
helped save the European silk industry by identifying the protozoan that caused a silkworm disease
The belief that life-forms can spontaneously appear from nonliving matter is known as which of the following?
When first seen by scientists through a microscope, microorganisms and cells were referred to as which of the following ?
theory of biogenesis
Which of the following refers to the theory that the growth of microorganisms can be controlled because living cells can only arise from preexisting living cells?
Which of the following refers to the theory that microorganisms cause disease ?
Which of the following refers to the theory that all living beings are composed of individual cells ?
a microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live and grow in the presence of oxygen
an organism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence
prefers live organic matter as a source of nutrition but can adapt to the use of dead organic matter under certain conditions
originating outside an organ or part
having the capacity to do something that is not compulsory in particular having the ability to live or adapt to certain conditions
organisms that are free living and relationships are not required for survival
unicellular organisms which are the lowest forms of animal life
a cube like packet of eight spherical bacteria (sarcina is Latin for bundle)
the living together in close association of two organisms of different species
grouping of four spherical shaped cells
a genus of spiral bacteria which are curved or bent rods that resemble commas
an agent destructive to viruses
a study of viruses and viral diseases
2, 3, 4
Which one of the following is a fungal infection:
Rickettsia rickettsii is:
1. a tick-borne disease
2. a flea-borne disease
3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
4. inclusion conjunctivitis
Which of the following are true of malignant neoplasms ?
1. resembles the tissue of origin
2. grows by infiltration
3. causes tissue damage
4. grows by expansion
Vaccines bring about a type of immunity referred to as:
naturally acquired passive
The type of immunity which is the result of placental transfer of antibodies is called:
The serum derived from an animal that has been immunized to an infectious disease and is used to confer immunity to others, including humans, is called:
A foreign protein, which when introduced into the body, excites the body cells to produce antibodies against itself, is called an:
artificially acquired passive
The type of acquired immunity that results from the inoculation of immune serum is called:
Lack of resistence to a specific disease is called:
Substances produced by body cells to combat foreign proteins introduced into the living body are called:
Antibodies that inactivate invading bacterial cells by causing the cells to form clumps are called:
The type of immunity that is inherited is called:
artificially acquired active
The type of immunity that results from the inoculation of a toxoid is:
The causative agent of a disease modified in such a manner that it will no longer cause the disease but will still promote the production of antibodies is a:
A highly developed state of resistance to a specific disease is called:
The organisms responsible for the infection epidemic meningitis exit from the host by means of:
infections caused by members of the genus salmonella are primarily transmitted by:
The portal of entry of the salmonella enteriditis is:
ophthalmia neonatorum is an infection caused by a species of bacteria which is a member of the genus:
Endospore formation is a characteristic of the members of the genus:
used for treating radioactive exposure
antitoxins for botulism
treatment to prevent total loss of muscle function and inability to breathe
treatment for highly infectious, often fatal, bacterial disease causes skin ulcers or a form of pneumonia when inhaled.
the lipid content in the respective bacterial cell wall.
The Gram stain, which is used to differentiate bacterial cells, is based on
Select the nonpathogenic bacterium
Which of the following is a single bacterial cell ?
Select the disease caused by a protozoa
Neisseria gonorrhoeae occurs as pairs of spherical organisms. Its morphological characteristics would be that of
All of the following are terms that describe viruses EXCEPT
is a virus that infects bacteria
African sleeping sickness
A protozoan-induced disease is
RNA or DNA
Viruses attack the bacterial cells as well as eukaryotic cells. The protein coat, or capsid, of a virus encloses a core of
It is a DNA tumor virus
Which of the following correctly describes the polyoma virus ?
cause typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans
Bacteria that can effectively carry out metabolism in the presence or absence of oxygen are described as:
does not require oxygen
A vacuole containing material to be expelled travels to the cell membrane and fuses with it. After fusion has been completed, the site of contact opens up and the contents of the vacuole are jettisoned out of the cell. The process is known as:
A bacterium that can grow on the most minimal medium and that synthesizes all the essential organic compounds it needs is an:
Bacteria may be classified into physiological groups according to the range of temperatures that will permit their growth. The type most suited for cold conditions are the:
prokaryotic cells only
Streptomycin, which interferes with protein synthesis, inhibits the growth of
The material often responsible for conferring resistance to antibiotics is the
Both affect cell walls.
How are penicillin and lysozyme similar ?
cause protein denaturation
1, 2, 3, 4
Which one of the following is/are resistant to disinfectants ?
3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
5. None of the above
Pasteurization is used in the production of which of the following:
2. Carbonated soda drinks
4. Milk/orange juice
5. None of the above
simple, circular DNA
Sometimes it is found that viruses can transfer genetic material from one bacterial strain to another. This process is called:
The direct transfer of bacterial DNA from one organism to another