view that old-stock values and social patterns were preferable to those of immigrants
anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant party
Free Soil Party
Opposed extension of slavery into any territories acquired from Mexico
Compromise of 1850
intended to reconcile North and South over slavery. It recognized popular sovereignty and had strong fugitive slave laws
Fugitive Slave Law
Stated that all escaped slaves had to be returned to their owners
New Hampshire lawyer/ Democratic politician elected as a compromise candidate in 1852
Pennsylvania democrat elected in 1856
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, who was anti-slavery. It gave an unrealistic, biased image of slavery to the North, causing extreme anti-slavery feelings. This offended the South because the book was inaccurate and made slavery out to be worse than it actually was.
John C. Freemont
Explored and mapped much of the American West and Northwest. He ran unsuccessfully for president.
Illinois senator who tried to reconcile North and South slavery differences through Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska act
Stephen Douglas' belief that a territory could exclude slavery by writing local laws or regulations that made slavery impossible to enforce
allowed residents of the Kansas and Nebraska territories to decide whether or not to allow slavery by voting
declaration by American foreign prime ministers that if Spain refused to sell Cuba, the US would take it by force
Constitution for Kansas dominated by proslavery forces. It was rejected by voters
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
He was an unpopular senator from Mass., and a leading abolitionist. In 1856, he made an assault in the pro-slavery of South Carolina and the South in his coarse speech, "The Crime Against Kansas." The insult angered Congressmen Brooks of South Carolina. Brooks walked up to Sumner's desk and beat him unconscious. This violent incident helped touch off the war between the North and the South.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that livig in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitional
Abolitionist who fought proslavery settlers in Kansas in 1855. he was hanged for involvement with Harper's Ferry
John J. Crittenden
Kentucky senator who tried to prevent the Civil War by proposing a series of Amendments protecting slavery south of the Missouri compromise line
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery and comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers, in defiance to the Slave Powers
One of the most skillful politicians in Republican party. Lawyer. Tried to gain national exposure by debates with Stephen A. Douglas. The Lincoln-Douglas debates attracted much attention. Lincoln's attacks on slavery made him nationally known. He felt slavery was morally wrong, but was not an abolitionist. He felt there was not an alternative to slavery and blacks were not prepared to live on equal terms as whites. Won presidency in November election and was assassinated by Booth.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Union plan to block all of the Confederate's resources, strangling them economically by taking over waterways with the navy.
Confederate States of America
These were the states that seceded from the United States during the Civil War.
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
First Bull Run
First battle of the Civil War. Union soldiers were commanded by McDowell and defeated by the Confederate soldiers under Stonewall Jackson. It proved to the North that the war would be longer and more difficult than they had initially believed.
A complicated route to capture Richmond that McClellan thought would circumvent the Confederate defenses. The navy would carry his troops down the Potomac to a peninsula east of Richmond, between the York and James Rivers; the army would approach the city from there.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
He was a Union general that was in charge during the beginning of the war. He defeated Lee, at Antietam, securing a much needed Union victory. He was later fired by Lincoln because of the failure of the Peninsular Campaign.
Confederate General who lead victories in the First Battle of Bull Run and the Chattle of Chancellorsville. He was accidentally shot by his own troops.
Ulysses S. Grant
US General-- He became the general in chief of the Union Army in 1864 after the Vicksburg Campaign. Later, he became president of the United States.
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
drafting of civilians to serve in the army
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free.
Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan that allowed a Southern state to form its own government after ten percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States
William T Sherman
general whose march to sea caused destruction to the south, union general, led march to destroy all supplies and resoures, beginning of total warfare
In Virginia where Lee daringly divided his numerically inferior army and sent Stonewall Jackson to attack the Union flank. This was successful strategy as it was one of the Confederates most successful victories of the war. However, during the battle Jackson was shot and killed by friendly fire which depleted the moral of the confederate force.
was one of the most celebrated 19th century American photographers, best known for his portraits of celebrities and the documentation of the American Civil War. He is credited with being the father of photojournalism.
an iron-clad vessel built by Federal forces to do battle with the Merrimac
an iron-clad vessel built by the Confederate forces in the hope of breaking the blockade imposed by the North
The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.
Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.
Election of 1864
Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins
March to the Sea
Sherman's march to Savannah which cut off confederate supplies received by the sea
all-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached.
Place in Virginia where the surrender of the Confederate Army to place
John Wilkes Booth
Southern sympathizer who assassinated Lincoln
the constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country
Banned states from denying African Americans the right to vote
was the President's idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war
derogatory term for white Southerners who aligned with the Republican party after the Reconstruction
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Wade Davis Bill
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
Morrill Land Grant Act
passed by Congress in 1862, this law distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges.
Pacific Railroad Act
Called for the building of the Transcontinental Railroad to stretch across America connecting California and the rest of America.
Ex Parte Milligan
was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled suspension of Habeas Corpus by President Abraham Lincoln as constitutional
agency est. in 1856 to aid former slaves in their transition to freedom especially by administering relief and sponsoring education
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Scandalous company created by Union Pacific Railroad insiders, it distributed shares of its stock to Congressmen to avoid detection
Ku Klux Klan
secret society organized in the South after the Civil War to resurrect white supremacy through violence and intimidation
Compromise of 1876
the deal gave the Democrats an end to Reconstruction and military occupation in the South (and thus political control of that region—the "Solid South" was born) in exchange for continued control of the White House—Rutherford B. Hayes given the contested election of 1876 over Samuel Tilden, even though he lost by 250,000 votes; by this point, Northerners had lost interest in the problems facing former slaves