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adrenergics

mimic naturally occuring catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) or stimulate the release of norepinephrine.

Beta 1 adrenergic agonists

Bradycardia, low cardiac output, paroxysmal atrial or nodal tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, cardiac output.

Beta 2 adrenergic agonists

Acute and chronic bronchial asthma, emphysema, bronchitis, acute hypersensitive (allergic) reaction to drugs, delays delivery in premature labor, dysmenorrhea

anticholinergics

. Spastic conditions including Parkinson's disease, muscle dystonia, muscle rigidity and extra pyramidal disorders
. Prevent nausea and vomiting from motion sickness, adjunctive treatment for peptic ulcers and other GI disorders, bronchospasms, and GU tract disorders.
. Treat poisoning from certain plants and pesticides.
. Use preoperatively to decrease secretions and block cardiac reflexes.

Anticholinergics adverse reactions

dry mouth, decreased sweating, headache, dilated pupils, blurred vision, dry skin, urinary hesitancy and urine retention, constipation, palpitations and tachycardia; other peripheral effects include dry mucous membranes, dysphasia, stupor, seizures, hyperthermia, hypertension and increased respiration.

Toxic doses: may cause disorientation, confusion, hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, agitation and restlessness.

antihistamine indications

allergies// pruritis// vertigo, nausea and vomiting// sedation// suppression of cough// dyskinesia

antihistamine adverse reactions/ toxic effects

adverse reactions:
drowsiness and impaired motor function; anticholinergic action will cause dry mouth and throat, blurred vision, and constipation.

toxic effects:
sedation, reduced mental alertness, apnea, cardiovascular collapse, hallucinations, tremors, seizure, dry mouth, flused skin, and fixed & dilated pupils (reverses when drug is withdrawn)

benzodiazepines

enhance/facilitate actions of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): reduction of anxiety and tension

beta blockers

reduce the worklad of the heart by blocking the sympathetic conductant at the beta receptors on the SA node and myocardial cells, thus decreasing the force of contraction and causing a reduction in heart rate.

calcium channel blockers

relaxes smooth muscle to provide vasolidation and affects cardiac muslce to reduce HR and SV

diuretics: Loop, potassium-sparing, thiazide

Loop increase the excretion of sodium and water and control high blood pressure and fluid retention.

Potassium-sparing: less potent than the other types, pretects agains potassium loss

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