# 6th Grade Science Study Guide

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### hypothesis

An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question

### infer

guess correctly, to find out by reasoning; to arrive at a conclusion on the basis of thought; to hint, suggest, imply

### controlled experiment

experiment that tests the effect of a single variable

### variable

something in an experiment that can change

### independent variable

variable that is changed in an experiment

### dependent variable

the variable that is measured in an experiment

### constant

variable that is not changed in an experiment

### critical thinking

Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions

### data

the information gathered from observations.

### Earth science

The study of earth and space; includes geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography

### life science

The study of living things

### model

represents an idea, event, or object to help people better understand it

### physical science

the study of matter and energy

### science

the study of the natural world

### scientific law

A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data

### scientific theory

A well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations

### system

an organized group of parts that work together to form a whole

### technology

tools and skills people use to meet their basic needs

### measurement

a quantity that has both a number and a unit

### precision

the exactness of a measurement

### accuracy

How close a measurement is to the true value

### description

an explanation of an observation

### SI

the international system of units

### meter

The basic SI unit of length

### volume

the amount of space an object takes up

### mass

the amount of matter in an object

### kilogram

SI unit for mass, one thousand grams

### weight

the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity

### kelvin

SI unit for temperature, - fundamental SI unit of temperature where zero degrees Kelvin is equal to absolute zero.

### rate

amount of change of one measurement in a given amount of time

### table

a set of data arranged in rows and columns

### graph

A diagram that shows how two variables are related.

### line graph

shows the relationship between two variables, shows change over time

### bar graph

a graph that uses horizontal or vertical bars to display data

### circle graph

A graph of data where the entire circle represents the whole or 100%, shows parts of a whole

### estimation

method of making an educated guess at a measurement, An approximate calculation of quantity

### J.J. Thompson

used the cathode ray tube to discover the electron

### Lavoisier

(1743-1794) father of modern chemistry - co discovered oxygen and hydrogen, introduced metric system, invented first periodic table. Beheaded in French Revolution

### Ernest Rutherford

British physicist discovered the nucleus, gold foil experiment- fired negative ions at thin sheet of gold foil, some particles were deflected almost as if it hit something solid

discovered the neutron, introduced Law of Conservation of Matter

### John Dalton

discovered the atomic theory, or the idea that everything was made up of atoms, created first model of the atom

### Periodic Table of Elements

the scientific chart that contains an arrangement of all known elements into a particular order based upon the number of protons and other properties of each element.

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### Metals

elements on the periodic table with high luster, good electrical conductivity, malleability, and loosely held valence electrons.

### Non-Metals

elements on the periodic table that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature

### Transitional metals

elements on the periodic table that are used because they have high melting points and are hard.

### Semi-metals

elements on the periodic table that have properties of both metals and nonmetals

### Noble gases

non-metallic elements on the periodic table which contain the most stable and nonreactive elements (also called the inert gases because they do not participate in many chemical reactions)

### Atomic Number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

### Atomic Mass

total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units

### Chemical Symbol

a one or two letter representation of an element, the abbreviation for the name of an element

### Number of protons

equals number of electrons

### Number of neutrons

Mass number - atomic number

### Number of electrons

equals the number of protons

### Matter

that which has mass and occupies space

### Atoms

the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons.

### Elements

a molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions.

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