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Abbasid Dynasty

(750-1258) Overthrew the Umayyads. Put in place things similar to what was already there so people would be familiar with it (ex. mosques that look like Ziggurats, similar coinage, etc.). Golden age of Islam during this dynasty

Abu Bakr

Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.

Absolute monarchy

A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power

Ali (4th Caliph)

Muhammad's son-in-law

Amsterdam

As the Dutch took over global trade during the 17th century, this Dutch city became the most important commercial and banking center in Europe

Amsterdam Exchange Bank

Dutch bank founded in 1609; it had a reputation as the safest, soundest bank in Europe and wealthy people from all over deposited here as well as took out loans with high interest rates; Dutch replaced Italians as the bankers of Europe

Antwerp

Each day, as many as five-thousand merchants gathered in this northern Dutch city to trade goods.

Baibars

(1223-1277) Commander of Mamluk forces at Ain Jalut in 1260; originally enslaved by Mongols and sold to Egyptians.

Bartolome de Las Casas

16th-century Spanish bishop of Chiapas, New Spain. Protector of the Indians. Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. Wrote about the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples.

Bill of Exchange

issued by a banker in one city to a merchant who could exchange it for cash in a distant city, thus freeing him from traveling with gold, which was easily stolen

Boyar Duma

Noble consul that gave the czar advice; formed by Michael Romanov

Black Death

A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351

Burges

n. In colonial times, a member of the lower house of the legislature of Maryland or Virginia.

John Calvin

1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.

Canton System

used to control western trade: trading confined to port of Canton in S. China. Trade run by hong merchants. Hoppo would collect taxes. Traders confined to factories. British start to not like system.

Chilies

Green or red pepper with a hot taste

Chinggis Khan

Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227, prior to conquest of most of Islamic world.

Chocolate

A sweet made from coco beans.

Christopher Columbus

An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.

Church of England

Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife

College

(n) an institution of higher education created to educate and grant degree

Columbian Exchange

An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.

Commenda

a form of trust in use in the middle ages in which goods are delivered to another for a particular enterprise (as for marketing abroad)

Commercial Revolution

A dramatic change in the economy of Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. It is characterized by an increase in towns and trade, the use of banks and credit, and the establishment of guilds to regulate quality and price.

Constitutional Monarchy

A form of government in which the king retains his position as head of state, while the authority to tax and make new laws resides in an elected body.

Nicolaus Copernicus

(1473-1543) Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.

Cotton

a soft, white material that grows on the seeds of a tall plant and that is used to make cloth; also : the plants on which this material grows

Crusdes

a series of "holy wars" beteween the christians and muslims

Delft

• City in the Netherlands (between rottendam and hogue) → the city of the dutch royal family The house of orange-nassa

Devshirme

'Selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries.

Dutch East India Company

A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Richer and more powerful than England's company, they drove out the English and Established dominance over the region. It ended up going bankrupt and being bought out by the British

Dutch West Indies Company

not as successful as the Dutch EAST Indies Company, they settled New Amsterdam, set up for fur trade.

Dutch Revolt

(1566-79) Caused for religious reasons; Protestant Region in Northern Spanish Netherlands/Dutch Republic; they revolted against Spanish authority for political and religious independence from Spain

Elect

chosen for salvation through divine mercy

Encomienda

A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.

Estado da India

Portuguese supported piracy and extortion by controlling spice trade in the Indian Ocean, this is another name for Portuguese India. It consisted of trading posts such as Goa, Daman, and Din which were established between 1505 and 1510. These possessions were annexed by India in 1961.

Fall of Constantinople

1453; led to the migration of scholars, encouraged the study of Greek during the Renaissance & made Italy the new center of Christian power; the Turks took over Constantinople - led to a large amount of Christians fleeing Constantinople

Francisco Pizarro

A conquistador like Cortes, who conquered the Incas in Peru and help to begin more advances in South America. Besides miners, farmers, priests, friars and missionaries went to South America after it was conquered by the conquistadores.

Feitorias

Portuguese trade post, usually fortified and built in coastal areas along the West and East African coasts, Indian Ocean and Brazil, from 1445 on. It served simultaneously as market, warehouse, navigation support and customs; also known as a "slave factory."

Feudalism

A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land

Fourth Lateran Council

1215, called by Pope Innocent III, was a summons to spiritual reform; among things established: secrecy of the confessional, Real Presence, fixing the number of the sacraments at seve, enforcement of clerical celibacy

Geocentrism

The outlook that the earth was the center of the universe and every thing rotated around it.

German Peasants' Revolt

Wanting to be freed from serfdom - destroy everything. Luther is in shock & writes to the princes showing no mercy. The princes' armies kill 100,000 people, and many peasants reject Luther's religious leadership

Grand Embassy

Peter's 18 month visit to Western Europe to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques to help westernize Russia

Great Famine

1315-1317 was the first time this happened that century. It was caused by wars and crop failure, and urban workers were most affected by the widespread starvation. Around this time, there were many armies, crowded cities and overpopulated rural areas, all breeding grounds for disease...

Great Schism

(1378-1417) Split that occurred in the Catholic Church with two Popes, one in Avignon, France and the other in Rome, Italy. The Schism caused many to question the Church's authority.

Heliocentrism

The view articulated by Polish clergyman Nicolaus Copernicus that the earth and planets revolve around the sun.

Henry VIII

(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.

Hernando Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)

History of Animals

Konrad Gesner

Hongwu Emperor

Zhu Yuanzhang; a peasant who rose up through the ranks of the Red Turbans to become a commander and pushed out the Yuan, who were weakened by the Black Death. He moved the capital and proclaimed the new dynasty the Ming, or "brilliance." While his wife, Ma, was known for her compassion, the Hongwu emperor was ruthless when it came to his opposers - he slaughtered almost 100,000 people. He re-centralized the gov. and brought much stability, revival, and prosperity to China.

Hugelu

Emperor who contributed to the fall of Baghdad; Chaugdis son

Iconoclastic Fury

16th century, the Calvinists went into Catholic monestaries and churches and destroyed all the symbols of catholicism inside, damaged stain glass. Why? because Granvelle intended to push a deep recatholicism. Many iconoclasts were executed. Where?

Ilkhan Khanate

one of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol empire after the death of Chinggis Khan; eventually included much of Abbasid empire.

Indulgence

A pardon given by the Roman Catholic Church in return for repentance for sins

Islamic Green Revolution

coined by the historian Andrew Watson in his influential 1974 paper postulating a fundamental transformation in agriculture from the 8th century to the 13th century in the Muslim lands.

Ismalis

Second major schismatic group in Shia Islam founded Fatamid dynasty

Investiture Crisis

state and church fighting over ability to elect officials, Henry elects his chaplain as bishop of Milan and Pope Gregory reminds him to follow Pope's laws (a.k.a. the church elects) Henry ignores pope and G. becomes angry, first H. is excommunicated (can't receive sacraments), then deposed (kicked off throne--pope doesn't back his position), then injunction (sacraments refused to his subjects), after this H. goes to pope asking for penance, pope lifts everything except deposition, Henry fighting war and G. backs his enemy but H. wins and comes after G.

Janissary

Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.

Koxinga

Half Japanese Ming loyalist who kept Formosa out of reach of Manchus. He was also the subject of popular Japanese play during the Tokugawa era which helped to de-legitimize Chinese cultural hegemony in Japan.

Little Ice Age

A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.

Maize

An early form of corn grown by Native Americans

Mamluk

Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)

Machiavelli

1469-1527 Niccolo, most important writer on POLITICS in the Renaissance. In The Prince rejected the Christian idea that state subject to divine law. Adopted SECULAR and AMORAL view of POLITICS. State existed for its own sake. Ruler should be concerned with preservation of power. Ends justified means. Yet most successful states of time were not in Italy but the New Monarchies. Politics in Italy was about virtu not involving loyalty as in New Monarchies.

Maroon

A slave who ran away from his or her master. Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America.

Martin Luther

95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.

Merchant Adventurers

A group of wealthy Londoners who gave money to the Plymouth Colonists to start their colony. In exchange for this money, the company took one-half of everything the colony could produce in seven years' time.

Mexico

Aztec Empire

Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

Millet system

Divided regions in the Ottoman Empire by religion (Orthodox Christians, Jews, Armenian Christians, Muslims). Leaders of each millet supported the Sultan in exchange for power over their millet.

Ming dynasty

Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.

Nagasaki

founded by the Portuguese in the second half of the 16th century on the site of a small fishing village, formerly part of Nishisonogi District. It became a center of Portuguese and other European peoples' influence in the 16th through 19th centuries

Navigation Acts

A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.

Ninety-Five Theses

Document written by Martin Luther and posted on a church door in Germany that listed 95 things that Luther saw wrong with the church

Northern Crusades

From 1147-1217 German knights expanded the kingdom of Germany vastly. Teutonic knights crusaded against balts livonians and Prussians. Created a elite German minority across Europe. Ties into Nazi ideology, elite class even if minority...German identity was expanded.

Palmares

Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8,000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan

Peter the Great

(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.

Plantation agriculture

Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives

Predestination

(theology) being determined in advance especially the doctrine (usually associated with Calvin) that God has foreordained every event throughout eternity (including the final salvation of mankind)

The Prince (Machiavelli)

instruction guide on how to rule/"better to be feared than loved"/"the ends justify the means"

Protestant Reformation

16th century series of religious actions which led to establishment of the Protestant churches. Led by Martin Luther

Oda Nobunaga

A brutal and ambitious daimyo who defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capital Kyoto in 1568. His motto was "Rule the empire by force." His 3,000 soldiers armed with muskets were the first to successfully use firearms in a battle.

Ogodei

the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan (Khagan) of the Mongol Empire by succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its furthest extent west and south during the invasions of Europe and Asia.

On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies

[Nicolaus Copernicus] This book offers an alternative model of the universe to the ptolemaic system; which before had been universally accepted. Introduced the heliocentric theory.

Outremer

area controlled by Europeans in Holy Land during crusades

Qing dynasty

(1644-1911 CE), the last imperial dynasty of China which was overthrown by revolutionaries; was ruled by the Manchu people: began to isolate themselves from Western culture,

Kublai khan

Mongol ruler, he completed the conquest of China and founded the Yuan dynasty

Quilombo

Brazilian settlement founded by people of African origin; multi-ethnic communities including runaway slaves: new material culture

Saladin

(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem

Senate

300 members, issued laws, served a life term, from the Patrician class, chose the councils

Serfdom

A type of labor commonly used in feudal systems in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave or to peruse their a new occupation. This was common in early Medeival Europe as well as in Russia until the mid 19th century.

Seven Books on the Fabric of
the Human Body

is a collection of textbooks on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) and published in 1543.[1]
The collection of books are based on his Paduan lectures, during which he deviated from common practice by dissecting a corpse to illustrate what he was discussing. Dissections previously had been performed by a barber surgeon under the direction of a doctor of medicine, who was expected not to perform manual labour. Vesalius' "hands-on" magnum opus presents a careful examination of the organs and the complete structure of the human body. This would not have been possible without the many advances that had been made during the Renaissance, including both artistic developments in literal visual representation and the technical development of printing refined woodcut engravings. Because of these developments and his careful, immediate involvement, he was able to produce illustrations superior to any that had been produced up to then.

Shari'a

the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed

Shi'a

"followers," refers to the branch of Islam who believe that Imam Ali and his sons were the true successors to the Prophet Muhammad

Silver

spain

Stadholder

This was the name given to the person appointed by the States General to carry out ceremonial functions in a province in the Netherlands

Streltsy

Guards of the Moscow palace during the Romanov Dynasy who rulers faced the constant threat of mutany from

Sugar

Europeans used slave labor to grow a wide range of profitable crops on the islands of the Caribbean; this was the most important and profitable of these crops

Sui dynasty

(589-618 CE) The Chinese dynasty that was like the Qin Dynasty in imposing tight political discipline; this dynasty built the Grand Canal which helped transport the rice in the south to the north.

Sultan

"overlord" or "one with power"; title for Ottoman rulers during the rise of the Ottoman Empire

Sufis

A mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life

Sunna

(Islam) the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran

Sunnis

Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries.

Table of Ranks

Created by Peter, it creates opportunities for nonnobles to serve the state and join the nobility ... nobility based on merit

Tafia

what was left of Al-Andalus; connection of independent communities ruled by leaders; dealt with the Berbers who wanted to create new empire in northern Africa and Spain & fought on behalf of Almohades

Tanegashima

an island off the coast of Japan where the European traders first met the Japanese

Time of Troubles

1604-1613, During which the Russian nobles elected series of tsars a tried to demand their liberties. Contending factions and civil war. Finally in 1613 national assembly elected a 17 year old boy as tsar - start of Romanov dynasty.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

General under Nobanga; suceeded as leading military power in Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constucted a series of military alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.

Treaty of Tordesillas

A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.

Umma

A community of those who share a religious faith and commitment rather than a tribal tie

Umayyad dynasty

(661-750 AD) during this dynasty they tried to take over Constantinople; they lost the Battle of Tours in 732

Ulema

a group of religious advisers to the ottoman sultan; this group administered the legal system and schools for educating Muslims

Umar

One of the 1st 4 caliphs. Friend of Muhammad. A merchant. Spread Islam to Syria, Egypt, and Persia; redesigned government; paid soldiers; held a census; made taxes more fair; built roads & canals; aided poor

Uthman

Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan

Wang Yangming

(1472-1529) The Ming Confucian who challenged Zhu Xi's approach to self-cultivation and established the Neo-Confucian School of Mind

Wanli Emperor

(r. 1573-1620) Ming emperor at the time of Matteo Ricci's mission to China. Vain and extravagant, he hastened the decline of the Ming dynasty through lack of attention to policy and the promotion of incompetent officials.

Yuan dynasty

(1279-1368 CE) The dynasty with Mongol rule in China; centralized with bureaucracy but structure is different: Mongols on top->Persian bureaucrats->Chinese bureuacrats.

Zhu Xi

(1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action

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