3.1 Nervous System

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central nervous system

the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

the neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, including muscles and glands

neurons

a nerve cell

cell body

a part of the neuron that produces energy needed for the activity of a cell

dendrites

the branch like extensions of a neuron that receive impulses and conduct them toward the cell body

axon

a long-tubelike structure that attached to a neuron that transmits impulses away from the neuron to the cell body

myelin

a white, fatty substances that insulates axons and enables rapid transmission of neural impulses

axon terminals

small fibers branching out from the axon

neurotransmitter

a chemical messenger that carries impulses to the synaptic gaps between neurons

spinal cord

a column of nerves within the spine that transmits messages to and from the brain

somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system with the sensory recepetors, muscles, and the skin.

autonomic nervous system

the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates body functions, such as respiration & digestion.

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