The Skeletal Sytstem

149 terms by 12mcordova 

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epiphysis

site of spongy bone in the adult

diaphysis

site of compact bone in the adult

red marrow

site of hemetopoiesis in the adult

diaphysis

scientific name for bone shaft

yellow marrow

site of fat storage in the adult

epiphyseal plate

site of longitudinal growth in a child

elastic cartilage

supports the external ear

fibrocartilage

between the vertebrae

hylaline cartilage

forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)

elastic cartilage

the epiglottis

hyaline cartilage

articular cartilage

fibrocartilage

meniscus in a knee joint

hyaline cartilage

connects the ribs to the sternum

fibrocartilage

most effective at resisting compression

elastic cartilage

more springy and flexible

most abundant

hyaline cartilage

central haversian canal

longitudinal canal, carrying blood vessels and nerves

lacunae

spaces which house osteocytes

concentric lamellae

layers of calcified matrix

bone matrix

nonliving, structural part of bone

canaliculi

tiny canals, connecting lacunae

canaliculi

minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon

matrix

inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance

articular cartilage

thin hyaline cartilage layer that covers epiphyses of bones in synovial joints

compact bone

Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone

endosteum

membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone

medullary cavity

central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone

periosteum

a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone

condyle

rounded, convex projection

crest

narrow ridge of bone

epicondyle

raise area of condyle

fissure

narrow depression or opening

foramen

opening through a bone

fossa

shallow depression

head

structure supported on neck

meatus

canal-like structure

process

projection or prominence

ramus

armlike projection

sinus

air-filled cavity

spine

sharp, slender projection

trochanter

large, irregularly shaped projection

tubercle

small, rounded projection

tuberosity

large, rounded projection

osteon

a unit of bone that runs lengthwise; cylindrical structure

central haversian canal

opening in the center of osteon; carries blood vessels and nerves

perforating volkman's canal

canal perpendicular to the central canal; carries blood vessels and nerves

lacunae

gap/space; cavities containing bones cells

lamellae

rings around the central canal

lacunae

arranged in concentric rings

lamellae

sites of lacunae

canaliculi

branches for nutrients to each cell

canaliculi

tiny canals, radiate from the central canal to lacunae, transport

osteocytes

mature bone cells

osteoblasts

bone-forming cells

osteoclasts

bone-destroying cells

osteoclasts

break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium

projection

grow out from the bones surface

depressions/cavities

indentations/holes

sharpey's fibers

secure periosteum to underlying bone

periosteum

outside covering of the diaphysis

humerus

bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow

radius

bone of the lower arm (thumb side)

ulna

the inner and longer of the two bones of the forearm

femur

the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton

tibia

the inner and thicker of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle

fibula

the outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle

carpals

bones of the wrist

metacarpals

bone of the hand between the wrist and each finger

tarsals

7 bones that make up the ankle

metatarsals

bones of the foot between ankle and toes

phalanges

bones of the fingers and toes

patella

a small flat triangular bone in front of the knee that protects the knee joint

long bone

Typically longer than wide

short bone

Generally cube-shape

irregular bone

Bones with complicated shapes

long bone

bone that contains mostly compact bone

long bone

bones that have a shaft with heads at both ends

short bone

bones that contain mostly spongy bone

sesamoid bones

type of short bone that forms within tendons

flat bone

bone that is Thin and flattened

flat bone

bone that is Usually curved

flat bone

bone with Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone

epiphysis

ends of bones, spongy bone

diaphysis

shaft, composed of compact bone

spongy bone

small needle-like pieces of bone, many open spaces

compact bone

homogenous, superficial bone, dense

frontal

forehead bone

zygomatic

cheekbone

mandible

lower jaw

nasal bone

bridge of nose

palatine bone

posterior part of hard palate

parietal bone

much of the lateral and superior cranium

sphenoid

single, irregular, bat-shaped bone, forming part of the cranial floor

lacrimal bone

tiny bones, bearing tear ducts

maxilla

anterior part of hard palate

ethmoid bone

superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projections

temporal bone

site of mastoid process

mandible

site of mental foramen

temporal bone

site of styloid process

frontal sinus, sphenoid sinus, ethmoid sinus, maxillary sinus

four bones, containing paranasal sinuses

occipital bone

its condyles articulate with the atlas

occipital bone

foramen magnum contained here

temporal bone

middle ear found here

vomer

nasal septum

deltoid tuberosity

raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches

humerus

arm bone

scapula, clavicle

bones composing shoulder girdle

radius, ulna

bones composing forearm

acromion

point where scapula and clavicle connect

scapula

shoulder girdle bone that has no attachment to the axial skeleton

clavicle

shoulder girdle bone that articulates anteriorly with the sternum

glenoid cavity

socket in the scapula for the arm bone

clavicle

commonly called the collarbone

trochlea

distal medial process of the humerus; joins the ulna

ulna

medial bone of the forearm in anatomical position

sternum, scapula

bones that articulate with the clavicle

carpals

bones of the wrist

phalanges

bones of the fingers

metacarpals

heads of these bones form the knuckles

ilium, ischium, pubis

fuse to form the coxal bone

ischial tuberosity

receives the weight of the body when sitting

pubic symphysis

point where the coxal bones join anteriorly

iliac crest

upper margin of iliac bones

acetabulum

deep socket in the hip bone that receives the head of the thigh bone

sacroiliac joint

point where axial skeleton attaches to pelvic girdle

femur

longest bone is the body, articulates with the coxal bone

fibula

lateral bone of the leg

tibia

medial bone of the leg

femur, tibia, fibula, patella

bones forming the knee joint

tibial tuberosity

point where the patellar ligament attaches

patella

kneecap

tibia

shinbone

medial malleolus

distal process on medial tibial surface

lateral malleolus

process forming the outer ankle

calcaneus

heel bone

simple fracture

bone is broken cleanly; the ends do not penetrate the skin

close reduction

nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone

greenstick fracture

a break common in children; bone splinters, but break is incomplete

compression fracture

a fracture in which the bone is crushed; common in the vertebral column

compound fracture

a fracture in which the bone ends penetrate through the skin surface

open reduction

surgical realignment of broken bone ends

spiral fracture

a result of twisting forces

capitulum

rounded knob on the humerus that articulates with the radius

occipital

most posterior part of the cranium

scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate, triquetral, pisiform, lunate

list the carpals starting with the one closest to the radius and moving clockwise

cervical curvature

C1-C7

thoracic curvature

T1-T12

lumbar curvature

L1-L5

atlas and axis

first two vertebra

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