Combo with Illiad Review and 1 other

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Homer

The creator of the Greek Epic and The Illiad and the Odyssey. It is said the Greeks developed a written language to preserve his stories

Invocation

The beginning of the poem where Homer appeals to the muses to help him tell his story well

Helen

The face that launched 1000 ships for whom the fictional war was fought. Supposedly the most beautiful woman in the world--hatched from a swan egg, daughter of Zeus

Menelaus

Helen's first and last husband, brother of Agamemnon, and King of Sparta.

Clytemnestra

Helen's big sister, Agamemnon's wife, mother of Iphigenia

Agamemnon

Brother of Menelaus, husband of Clytemnestra, father of Iphigenia, child killer and rapist, high king of Greece

Priam

King of Troy, father of Paris and Hector, husband of Hecabe

Hector

Hero of Troy, brother of Paris, killer of Patroclus, and then killed by Achilles at end of Illiad

Turkey

country where Troy was most likely located

Apple of Discord

Root cause of the war--why Paris had to make a choice among three goddesses

Hera, Athena, Aphrodite

The three goddesses vowing for the title of fairest

10 years

Length of the Trojan War--in the story

Who does Paris challenge to a fight?

Menaleus (Bk. 3)

Why is the person Paris challenges to fight significant?

Menaleus is Helen's actual husband (versus Paris as her pretend husband). (Bk. 3)

What does the winner of the duel receive?

Helen (and the ten year Trojan War will end). (Bk. 3)

What does each side do before duel begins?

They pray to the God. (Bk. 3)

Who is clearly winning the duel?

The Greek, Menaleus has the upperhand.

What is the end result of the duel?

Pairs is saved by the goddess, Aphrodite who snaps the chinstrap of Paris and frees him from Menaleus. She then shrouds Paris in a mist.

What is Zeus's recommendation to the Gods about war?

The Gods should let the mortals fight it out.

Who goes against Zeus's wishes about the Trojan War?

Hera and Athena

Why do Hera and Athena they go against Zeus' wishes?

They want to destroy the Trojans, while Zeus is helping Achille's mother, Thetis, and letting the Trojans temporarily win the war.

Who is sent to provoke futher fighting?

Athena (Bk. 4)

Who shoots to make sure the fighting continues?

Panderos shoots Menaleus. (Bk. 4)

Who is the greatest Achaean warrior in Book 5?

Diomedes

Who helps Diomedes sweep through the battlefield?

Athena (Bk 5)

Athena tells Diomedes to avoid all gods but to attack this one,_________.

Aphrodite (Bk 5)

Which two members of the Trojan side of note does this warrior wound?

Aphrodite (who spills ichor but cannot die) and Aniyas (Aphrodite's son)

Why Diomede's wounding of Aphrodite significant?

(1) Results in Zeus telling Aphrodite that she shouldn't be involving herself in war (reminds her that love is her realm) (2) gives the Trojans more reason to fight with Ares behind them.

Who chastises Paris to fight?

Hektor challenges him to fight.

What does praying before a battle/duel say about Greek/Trojan culture?

People believe their gods control the outcomes of battles and they rely on gods for strength in battle.

kleos

Greek word for glory, fame, honor, renown

nostos

the Greek term for homecoming, it is Odysseus goal throughout the Odyssey

When do scholars believe Troy fell?

1184 BCE.

Dates when Homer Lived

700 B.C.E.

Achilles

Greek champion, leader of Greek ships, son of King Peleus and Thetis, strongest of Greek warriors

Myrmidons

elite soldiers and bodyguards of Achilles; best warriors in ancient Greece

Briseis

beautiful war captive awarded to Achilles

Patroklos

close friend and companion of Achilles

Chryseis

beautiful war captive of Agamemnon and daugher of a priest of Apollo; has to be given up by Agamemnon because Apollo is angry at him for not giving her back to her priest Dad.

Odysseus

king of Ithaka; fights with Agamemnon

Nestor

King of Pylos; friend of Odysseus, old warrior

Aais

Greek warrior; tallest with the largest shield

Andromache

wife of Hector and mother of Astyanax

Asytanax

infant son of Hector and Andromache

Paris

Prince of Troy; kidnapper of Helen; brother of Hector and son of King Priam, favored by Aphrodite

Athena

Goddess of war and wisdom; friend to Odysseus & Greeks; enemy to Trojans

Hera

wife of Zeus; hater of Trojans; friend of Greeks, because Paris (Trojan) chose Aphrodite over her as the most beautiful.

Aphrodite

goddess of love & beauty; friend to Paris & Helen; friend of Trojans; enemy of Greeks

Apollo

god of light, the bow, the arts, youth; friend of Trojans; enemy of Greeks

Zeus

father of the gods, supports neither side but knows Greeks will win

Poseidon

god of sea & earthquakes; friend of Greeks sometimes

Hermes

messenger god; son of Zeus; supports neither side

Iris

female messenger goddess and goddess of the rainbow; supports neither side, A messenger of the gods, regarded as the goddess of the rainbow.

Hephaestus

fire god, blacksmith god; supports Greeks more than Trojans; makes new armor for Achilles

Thetis

sea nymph; mother of Achilles, friend to Greeks, except when Agamemnon dishonors her son.

Proteus

the Ancient One of the Sea; supports neither side

What does Illiad mean?

The story of Troy=Ilium, old word for Troy.

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