Chapter 6 SCIENCE

66 terms by mamcguire1

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pH

a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is

neutral

7 on a pH scale

ACIDIC

below 7 on pH scale

BASIC

above 7 on pH scale

Hydrogen ions (H+)

Acids contain what kind of ions?

acid

any substance that forms hydrogen ions in water

hydrochloric acid

hydrogen chloride in a solution with water as a solvent

base

any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water

diffusion

the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

osmosis

a special case of diffusion involving the movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

small and soluble

Molecules which move by diffusion must be

pores

cell membrane contains many

semi¬permeable

selectively permeable

ALL

The cell wall allows ____ molecules to pass through it

SELECT

The cell membrane allows _______ to pass through it

large

Starch is a ____ molecule.

small

Oxygen and glucose are _____ molecules.

hypotonic

_______ solution has lots of salt inside

hypertonic

_________ solution has lots of salt outside

isotonic

_______ solution is equal to surrounding areas

water enters by osmosis causing the cell to swell and burst.

OSMOSIS - ANIMAL CELL - Hypotonic

water leaves by osmosis causing the cell to shrivel

OSMOSIS - ANIMAL CELL - Hypertonic

No noticeable difference

OSMOSIS - ANIMAL CELL - Isotonic

Water enters by osmosis causing the cell to swell.

OSMOSIS - PLANT CELL - hypotonic

bursting

the plant cell wall prevents :

Water leaves by osmosis. This causes the vacuole to shrink and the cell membrane to shrink away from the cell wall

OSMOSIS - PLANT CELL - hypertonic

no difference

OSMOSIS - PLANT CELL - Isotonic

TURGID

Water enters by osmosis causing the cell to swell. The CELL WALL prevents bursting. This cell is described as

PLASMOLYSED

Water leaves by osmosis. This causes the vacuole to shrink and the cell membrane to shrink away from the cell wall

COVALENT

which type of chemical bonds are electrons shared equally?

isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called

Base because bases have OH

is this an acid or a base? why? < Ca(OH)2 >

45

The total number of atoms in a molecule of sucrose, C12H22O11, is

proteins

The various enzymes in our bodies are

nitrogen

Unlike carbohydrates and fats, proteins contain

Double bonds

An unsaturated lipid contains what kind of bonds?

Dehydration synthesis

When molecules of glucose and fructose combine to form sucrose, they do so by

amino acids

What are the basic building blocks of proteins?

polymer

What is the name of a large molecule that is formed when small molecules combine?

enzymes

what acts as catalysts in chemical reactions?

d. starch

Which of the following is a polysaccharide?
a. Glucose b. fructose c. sucrose d. starch

acidic

When a solution has more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions, it is considered ___

arrangement of atoms

Glucose and fructose, with the formula C6H12O6, differ in _____

c. pressure

Which of these does not affect the rate of diffusion?
a. kinetic energy b. concentration of substances
c. pressure d. temperature

d. have serious, perhaps fatal consequences because the red blood cells would tend to
burst.

In an attempt to replenish body fluids, a patient who has had a serious hemorrhage accidentally receives a large transfusion of distilled water directly into one of his veins. This would probably:
a. have no unfavorable effect as long as the water is free of bacteria.
b. have serious, perhaps fatal consequences because there would be too much fluid for
the heart to pump.
c. have serious, perhaps fatal consequences because the red blood cells would tend to
shrivel.
d. have serious, perhaps fatal consequences because the red blood cells would tend to
burst.

highest disorder, lowest energy

Reactions in nature tend towards

water

What molecule is often removed when monomers combine to form a polymer?

lipids

Fats, oils, and waxes belong to a group of organic compounds called

carbohydrates

The principle energy storing molecules in most living things are

water is added

In a hydrolysis reaction:

Arrangement of amino acids; different number of amino acids; shape of molecule

How is it possible for each species to contain thousands of unique proteins despite the limited number of amino acids from which these molecules are made? List two reasons.

Because a main source of protein for humans is meats like chicken and fish

Explain why vegetarians must be careful to achieve adequate protein intake in their diets

decrease or stop metabolism

How would a lack of enzymes affect cell metabolism?

Because they give a quick burst of energy - body&#039;s first source of energy

Why are sugars biologically important compounds?

stands for pondus hydrogenii which means potential hydrogen

what does pH mean?

ionization

formation of ions from a covalent solute in aqueous solution

corrosive

eats through some metals

acid bc H

is this acidic or basic?
H2SO4

enzymes

proteins which help speed up chemical reactions

speed up

Enzymes ___ reactions

catalyst

chemical that speeds up the rate of reaction without being used up by the reaction.

substrate

The reactant that an enzyme acts on is the

active site

a certain area of the enzyme where the reaction occurs

kinetic energy

Why does temperature affect the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions?

affects the structure of proteins. If the shape of the active site changes, it will no longer match the substrate as well

Why does pH affect the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions?

cofactors

nonprotein helpers

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