DMIS 1100 class 8

86 terms by CarrieMines 

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lecture on 10/27/10

What are the 4 positions of the uterus?

anteverted, anteflexed, retroverted, retroflexed

At what point in a pregnancy would a retroverted uterus become anteverted?

10-12 weeks

With every 100 ovums, how many will be lost?

58

Out of 100 ovums how many are lost due to no fertilization?

16

Out of 100 ovums how many are lost due to fertilization but no implantation?

15

Out of 100 ovums how many are lost due to the fertilized egg aborting at the onset of meses?

27

What is the length of pregnancy (support of pregnancy)?

280 days (40 weeks)

What is the normal full term gestational age?

38-42 weeks

When does gestational age begin?

14 days prior to conception (first day of LMP)

When can a spontaneous abortion occur?

between 5-12 weeks

How many eggs are infant girls born with?

200 thousand

What is LMP?

last menstrual period

What happens on day 1 of the gestation period?

pituitary gland releases FSH, ovary creates egg and follicle growth begins

What happens during days 2-7 of the gestation period?

follicle grows and produces estrogen which stimulates the lining of the uterus to produce new blood vessels

What happens during days 7-12 of the gestation period?

follicle grows to maturity (graafian follicle 18-24 mm)

What happens on day 14 of the gestation period?

estrogen peaks which causes pituitary gland to release LH which then causes graffian follicle to rupture & release ovum

What is a zygote?

fertilized egg

What is the rate of growth of the primary ovum between days 1-14 of the gestation period?

2-3 mm/day

What happens on day 14-15 of the gestation period?

the released graafian follicle is transformed into a corpus luteum cyst which produces progesterone, the progesterone prepares the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg

What two hormones peak at ovulation?

LH and estrogen

What hormone is released from the endometrium?

estrogen

What two structures release estrogen?

graafian follicle & endometrium

What are the two hormones that the pituitary gland releases during the gestation period?

FSH & LH

What can be given intravenously to a woman to stimulate ovulation if LH is low?

HCG

How can a woman determine that she is ovulating?

body temp at highest level (1/2%-1% higher than normal)

What can be given vaginally to a woman to support implantation if progesterone is low?

progesterone suppository

What happens if no fertilization occurs by day 21 of the gestation period?

estrogen & progesterone levels drop, endometrium outrgrows the blood supply and begins to slough off

In which part of the fallopian tube is it most common for fertilization of the ovum to take place?

ampulla (distal third of the tube)

During day 16-17 of the gestation period what is the fertlized egg referred to as?

morula

How many cells make up a morulla?

16-32

What occurs on day 20-21 of the gestation period?

implantation

At the time of implantation, what does the developing placenta release?

HCG

What two hormones does the corpus luteum continue to secrete after implantation?

estrogen & progesterone

What occurs on days 28-33 of the gestation period?

the gestational sac develops with the chorionic villi and attaches to the urerine wall to form placenta, inner cell mass forms as the embryonic disk and primary yolk sac

What is the outer layer of a blastocyst?

trophoblast

What is the cluster of cells within a blastocyst?

inner cell mass (embryo)

What does the trophoblast release?

HCG

By day 35 of the gestation period (5 weeks mestrual age) what can be seen within the uterus?

double sac sign or psuedosac

What is the double sac sign?

2 layers of cells appear as a double sac

What does a pseudosac indicate?

ectopic pregnancy

What may be able to be seen within the gestational sac at day 35?

yolk sac and/or fetal pole

At 5 weeks gestation (day 35) what has developed within the embryo?

neuro plate, lung buds

Lung buds continue to grow until when?

17 weeks gestation

What is IUP?

intrauterine pregnancy

At what age is a gestation sac that measures 10 mm?

5 weeks gestation

How is gestation age in days determined?

(x¹+x²+x³) + 30 / 7.7

How is gestation age in weeks determined?

x¹+x²+x³ / 3 AND use look up table for gestational age

Why is the measurement of the gestation sac not accurate for gestation age?

can be off by 2 weeks dependent on measurements & irregularity of sac

At week 6 gestation what has formed within the embryo?

forbrain/midbrain/hindbrain from brain, spine and cord/secondary yolk and sac/heart rate from neurotube

At 6 weeks gestation, what measurement can be taken?

CRL

What is CRL?

crown rump length (head to butt)

Why is CRL the most accurate fetal measurement?

it is age accurate within 4 days

What should be seen on ultrasound for a 6 week old fetus (especially with transvaginal exam)?

heart rate

When MUST a heart rate be seen on transabdominal scan?

7 weeks gestation

The CRL should meausure what for a fetus that is 6-6.5 weeks old?

3-6 mm

What is the age of a 1 cm embryo?

7 weeks gestation

At 7 weeks gestation, what can be seen on ultrasound?

shape of embryo head and body

When are fetal arm buds first visualized on ultrasound?

8-9 weeks gestation

At what age gestation does spine mineralization occur?

8-9 weeks

At what age (gestational) does an embryo progress to be a fetus?

10 weeks

At what age has the fetal organs and systems developed and have been correctly positioned?

10 weeks gestation

At 10 weeks gestation, how does the brain appear?

fluid filled

What cellular and aembryonic architecture occur at 10 weeks gestation?

neurocranial axia, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, urogenital system, primitive skeleton, muscles, cord herination, kidney tissue

Most body systems can be visualized on ultrasound by what age?

9-12 weeks gestation

What abdominal wall defect can result from fetal bowel protruding from the abdominal wall through the cord site after 13 weeks gestation?

omphalocoele

What type of twins originated from 2 eggs, 2 sperm, and develop in 2 seperate sacs and share 1 placenta?

fraternal-diamniotic/monochorionic

What type of twins originated from 2 eggs, 2 sperm, and develop in 2 seperate sacs, each with their own placenta?

fraternal-diamniotic/dichorionic

What type of twins originate from 1 egg, 1 sperm, and develop within the same sac, and share 1 placenta?

identical-monoamniotic/monochorionic

What type of twins originate from 1 egg, 1 sperm, and develop in seperate sacs, and share 1 placenta?

identical-diamniotic/monochorionic

What produces cerebral spinal fluid in the fetus?

choroid plexus

What can be seen on ultrasound in a 12 week gestation fetus?

choroid plexus, fetal skull, femur

What is BPD? (fetal meausurement)

biparietal diameter

What is AC? (fetal meausurement)

abdominal circumfrence

When does fetal intestinal activity begin?

11 weeks gestation

When does fetal swallowing begin to occur?

12 weeks gestation

What measurement can be taken at 12 weeks gestation?

BPD and femur length

What would indicate that a transvaginal ultrasound should be performed within the first trimester?

vaginal bleeding, pain, abdomen measures large or small for dates, dates are unknown, drug abuse, IUD, trauma, history of twins or miscarriage

Why may there be vaginal bleeding in the first trimester?

ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, hydatiform mole, choriocaricnoma

Why would a woman measure larger than usual during her pregnancy?

if there is a mass, mulitiple fetus, incorrect dates

Why would a woman measure smaller than usual during her pregnancy?

fetal demise, ectopic pregnancy, incorrect dates

Why do correct dates need to be determined during pregnancy?

so test dates can be determined, if cesarian section is needed, EDC

Why is it important to know if a woman has abused drugs during her pregnacy?

it can cause fetal anomalies, growth rate changes

What weeks are within the 1st trimester?

0-12 weeks gestation

What weeks are within the 2nd trimester?

13-24 weeks gestation

What weeks are within the 3rd trimester?

25-40 weeks gestation

What is EDC?

estimated date of confinement

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