The respiratory system is the
most vital of all systems and we can only survive a few minutes without air!!!
more common in children.
etiology- trauma,sinusitis, high altitudes, dry climates, hypertension( hypertension also affects kidneys)
Rx- elevate head, pressure,packing
etiology- usually caused by common cold, URI(bacterial), or allergic response.
S/S-nasal congestion, headach, non-productive cough.
Rx- analgesics, antibiotics
sore throat, acute form caused by bacterial or viral infections and chronic form by allergy or persistent cough.
sore throat caused by atreptococcal infection can result in rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis.
hoarseness(inflammation of vocal cords)
etiology- infections, inhalation of irritants, excessive use of voice.
Rx- rest the voice
Describe infectious mononucleosis.
Known as the kissing disease.
etiology- Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) spread through saliva. contagious before symptoms.
S/S- sore throat, fever, swollen lymph glands.
Px- prolonged recovery(weeks or months)
can be bacterial or viral. Aspiration pneumonia
S/S- fever, productive cough
Rx- antibiotics, humidified oxygen, postural drainage.
elderly, debilitated & one with weakened immune systems.
Describe legionnaire's disease
Etiology- caused by bacteria that thrive in warm aquatic environments. bacteria inhaled into lungs. Incubation period 1 week and not contagious. Smokers at greater risk.
Describe lung abscess.
necrotic lung tissue containing pus(usually RRL due to more direct acess)
complication of pneumonia.
Rx- prolonged may require surgery.
complete or partial collapsed lung resulting in free air in thorax.
S/S- sudden, sharp pain,SOB, anxiety, respiratory distress, cyanosis.
Rx- insertion of chest tube
tension pneumothorax can impair cardiac function.
inflammation of the pleural membranes.
S/S- sharp, stabbing pain & SOB
Dx- ayscultation of pleural friction rub( squeaky leather sound)( hurt when breath in)
Rx- bedrest, analgesics
Describe pleural effusion.
excess fluid in pleural space found by protein content in fluid.
2 types- transudate= little or no protein
exudate= high protein
Tx- thoracertesis( aspiration of fluid with needle)(pullout)
it includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, & others.Air trapped in the alveoli & eventually enlarge chest.
S/S-onset gradual & unnoticed
Rx-prevent complications & no cure.
labored breathing & wheezing
Intrinsic in adults & extrinsic in children
certain triggers make worse
S/S-loud wheezing, dyspnea, tachypnea, chest tightness, diaphoresis, anxious.
Rx-gain control of symptoms
Describe pulmonary tuberculosis.
bacterial lung infection characterized by necrosis of lung tissue.
etiology- airborne bacteria exhaled by infected individuals.
S/S- weight loss, fever, cough, hemoptysis(coughing up blood), night sweats.
Rx- antibiotics(drug resistant organism real problem) health care worker must have PPD skin test annually.
Describe inhalation diseases.
Silicosis- inhalation of silica(quartz)dust.
Asbestosis- exposure to asbestos fibers.
Berylliosis- exposure to a specialty metal.
Anthracosis - inhalation of cold dust aka black lung disease.
Describe respiratory mycoses.
All are fungal infections.
Histoplasmosis - found in soil contaminated with bird and chicken droppings.
Coccidioidomycosis - found in dry desert soil.
Blastomycosis - all are similar and self limiting.
Describe pulmonary edema.
Accumulation of fluid in air spaces of the lungs.
Common complications of cardiac disease and medical emergency.
S/S - onset unusally at night, orthopnea ( difficulty breathing while laying flat. )
cold clammy skin and drop in BP.
Rx - Oxygen, bronchodilators, and diuretics.
Describe Cor Pulmonale.
Heart problem caused by lung problem, blood pools in right ventricle and it enlarges. It increases the work load of the heart and is caused by various disorders of the lungs.
Rx - digitalis to stimulate heart function.
Prognosis - poor.
Describe pulmonary embolism.
mass of undissolved matter ( blood clot, fat ) that travels to the lungs and blocks circulation.
Etiology - immobile patients, pregnancy, transoceanic airline passengers.
S/S - sudden chest pain and inability to get air.
Rx - Clot busting drugs.
Prognosis - frequently fatal.
Describe respiratory acidosis.
inadequate removal of co2 by the lungs
( hypoventilation )
Dx - aterial blood gas test.
Rx - improve oxygenation.
Prognosis - can cause cardiac arrest.
Describe respiratory alkalosis.
excessive removal of co2 by the lungs
( hyperventiliation ) caused by anxiety, excessive exercise or mechanical ventilation.
collapsed alveoli resulting in hypoxia.
Etiology - COPD, cystic fibrosis, or post - op immobilization.
S/S - SOB, tachycardia.
Rx - cough and deep breath.
Permanent, abnormal dilation of bronchial walls, usually bilateral.
Etiology - frequent life threatning complication of cystic fibrosis.
S/S - chronic productive cough with foul smelling sputum.
Describe lung cancer.
most lung cancers are caused either directly or indirectly by smoking ( 87 % ).
Rx - surgery, chemo, radiation.
Prognosis - poor.
Lung cancer is almost totally preventable.
Describe sudden infant death syndrome. ( SIDS )
unexpected, unexplained death of an normal healthy infant, usually at age 10 - 12 weeks.
Describe accute tonsillitis.
inflammation of one or both tonsils.
Etiology - caused by strep or staph.
S/S - fever, severe sore throat.
Rx - antibiotics or tonsillectomy.
Describe adenoid hyperplasia.
enlargement of the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx causing breathing blockage.
S/S - mouth breathing, snoring, frequent head colds.
Rx - adenoidectomy ( T and A ).
Severe inflammation and obstruction of the upper respiratory tract, occuring in winter from 3 months to 3 years of age.
S/S - stridor is a harsh high pitched crowing sound with a barking cough.
Rx - cool humidification.