As defined by Durkheim, self annihilation that the person feels will serve a social purpose, such as the self-immolations practiced by Buddhist monks during the Vietnam War.
As defined by Durkheim, self annihilation triggered by a person's inability to cope with sudden and unfavorable change in a social situation.
The explanation a person has for his or her behavior.
A personality style associated with vulnerability to depression. It is an achievement-related construct that focuses on self-critical goal striving, a desire for solitude, and freedom from control.
Electroconvulsive therapy in which electrodes are placed on each side of the forehead and an electrical current is passed between them through both hemispheres of the brain.
Bipolar I Disorder
A disorder in which people experience episodes of both mania and depression, or of mania alone.
Bipolar II Disorder
A disorder in which people experience episodes of major depression followed by a type of manic phase that is less severe than of Bipolar I.
A mood contemplation of depressive symptoms - "What am I doing to deserve this? - that is more common in females than in males.
The prediction that people are likely to be depressed if hey have a personality vulnerability that is matched by congruent life events (eg. a perfectionist who experiences a failure to achieve). It is derived from research on personality, stress, and depression.
Chronic swings between elation and depression not severe enough to warrant the diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder.
A disorder marked by great sadness and apprehension, feelings or worthlessness and guilt, withdrawal from others, loss of sleep, appetite, sexual desire, loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities, and either lethargy or agitation.
A cognitive tendency for depressed individuals to accept personal responsibility for negative outcomes despite feeling a lack of personal control.
Depressive Predictive Certainty
The concept that people become prone to depression when they percieve that an anticipated state of helplessness is certain to occur. It is derived from the hopelessness theory of depression.
A comorbid condition that applies to someone characterized by both dysthymia and major depression.
State of depression that is long-lasting but not severe enough for the diagnosis of major depression.
As defined by Durkheim, self annihilation committed because the individual feels extreme alienation from others and from society.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
A treatment that produces a convulsion by passing electric current through the brain. Though an unpleasant and occasionally dangerous procedure, it can be useful in alleviating profound depression.
An about-normal elevation of mood, but not as extreme as mania.
The idea that once a depression has been experienced, the person is sensitized and it takes less stress to elicit a subsequent bout of depression. It is a concept derived from stress research on animals.
The theory that individuals acquire passivity and a sense of being unable to act and to control their lives; this happens through unpleasant experiences and traumas against which their efforts were ineffective; according to Seligman, this brings on depression.
A drug useful in treating both mania and depression in Bipolar Disorder.
Major Depressive Disorder
An extreme form of depression that satisfies the number of symptoms required for the category of depression to apply.
An emotional state of intense of intense by unfounded elation evidenced in talkativeness, flight of ideas, distractibility, grandiose plans, and spurts of purposeless activity.
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors
A group of antidepressant drugs that prevent the enzyme monoanime oxidase from deactivating neurotransmitters of the central nervous system.
Disorders in which there are disabling disturbances in emotion.
In Beck's theory of depression, a person's baleful views of the self, the world, and the future; the triad is in a reciprocal causal relationship with pessimistic assumptions (schemata) and cognitive biases such as selective abstraction.
A treatment designed for people with seasonal affective disorder. It involves exposure to intense white light.
The depression experienced by some mothers after giving birth.
An individual who emphasizes the psychological aspects and symptoms of depression.
A tendency to focus cognitively (perhaps to the point of obsession) on the causes of depression ans associated feelings rather than engaging in forms of distraction.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
The "winter depressions" that stem from reduced exposure to daylight.
A personality style associated with vulnerability to depression. It involves high levels to dependency and and excessive need to please others.
A measure of cognitive processing that requires respondents to identify the color of a word while ignoring the word's content or meaning. It takes longer to color-name a word is the word reflects a theme that is cognitively accessible for a particular individual.
Suicide Prevention Centres
Based on the assumption that people are ambivalent about taking their own lives, these centers are staffed primarily by paraprofessionals who are trained to be empathetic and to encourage suicidal callers to consider non-destructive ways of dealing with what is bothering them.
A group of antidepressants with molecular structures characterized by three fused rings; they are known to interfere with the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin by a neuron after it has fired.
Electroconvulsive therapy in which electrodes are placed on one side of the forehead so that the current passes through only one brain hemisphere.
A conclusion drawn in the absence of sufficient evidence or of any evidence at all. For example, a man concludes that he is worthless because it is raining the day he hosts an outdoor party.
A conclusion drawn on the basis of only one of many elements in a situation. For example, a worker feels worthless when a product fails to function, even though she is only one of many people who contributed to its production.
An overall sweeping conclusion drawn on the basis of a single, perhaps trivial, event. For example, a student regards her poor performance in a single class on one particular day as final proof of her worthlessness and stupidity.
Magnification & Minimization
Exaggerations in evaluating performance. For example, a man believing that he has completely ruined his car when he notices a slight scratch on the rear fender, regards himself as good to nothing, or a women believe herself worthless in spite of a succession of praiseworthy achievements.